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Open AccessArticle

Nitrogen and Phosphorus Effect on Sun-Induced Fluorescence and Gross Primary Productivity in Mediterranean Grassland

1
Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, 07745 Jena, Germany
2
Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, Hengelosestraat 99, 7514 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
3
JB hyperspectral devices, 33 – 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
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University of Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milan, Italy
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University of Copenhagen, Nørregade 10, 1165 Copenhagen, Denmark
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Institute of bio- and geosciences, IBG-2, Plant Sciences, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Julich, Leo-Brandt-Str., 52425 Jülich, Germany
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Universidad de Extremadura, 10600 Plasencia, Spain
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Environmental Remote Sensing and Spectroscopy Laboratory (SpecLab), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), 28037 Madrid, Spain
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Centro De Estudios Ambientales Del Mediterráneo, 46980 Valencia, Spain
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Department of Environment, National Institute for Agriculture and Food Research and Technology (INIA), Ctra. Coruña, Km. 7,5, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(21), 2562; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11212562
Received: 9 September 2019 / Revised: 19 October 2019 / Accepted: 21 October 2019 / Published: 31 October 2019
Sun-Induced fluorescence at 760 nm (F760) is increasingly being used to predict gross primary production (GPP) through light use efficiency (LUE) modeling, even though the mechanistic processes that link the two are not well understood. We analyzed the effect of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) availability on the processes that link GPP and F760 in a Mediterranean grassland manipulated with nutrient addition. To do so, we used a combination of process-based modeling with Soil-Canopy Observation of Photosynthesis and Energy (SCOPE), and statistical analyses such as path modeling. With this study, we uncover the mechanisms that link the fertilization-driven changes in canopy nitrogen concentration (N%) to the observed changes in F760 and GPP. N addition changed plant community structure and increased canopy chlorophyll content, which jointly led to changes in photosynthetic active radiation (APAR), ultimately affecting both GPP and F760. Changes in the abundance of graminoids, (%graminoids) driven by N addition led to changes in structural properties of the canopy such as leaf angle distribution, that ultimately influenced observed F760 by controlling the escape probability of F760 (Fesc). In particular, we found a change in GPP–F760 relationship between the first and the second year of the experiment that was largely driven by the effect of plant type composition on Fesc, whose best predictor is %graminoids. The P addition led to a statistically significant increase on light use efficiency of fluorescence emission (LUEf), in particular in plots also with N addition, consistent with leaf level studies. The N addition induced changes in the biophysical properties of the canopy that led to a trade-off between surface temperature (Ts), which decreased, and F760 at leaf scale (F760leaf,fw), which increased. We found that Ts is an important predictor of the light use efficiency of photosynthesis, indicating the importance of Ts in LUE modeling approaches to predict GPP. View Full-Text
Keywords: sun-induced fluorescence (SIF); gross primary production (GPP); fertilization; nitrogen; phosphorus; light use efficiency; SCOPE; canopy structure sun-induced fluorescence (SIF); gross primary production (GPP); fertilization; nitrogen; phosphorus; light use efficiency; SCOPE; canopy structure
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Martini, D.; Pacheco-Labrador, J.; Perez-Priego, O.; van der Tol, C.; El-Madany, T.S.; Julitta, T.; Rossini, M.; Reichstein, M.; Christiansen, R.; Rascher, U.; Moreno, G.; Martín, M.P.; Yang, P.; Carrara, A.; Guan, J.; González-Cascón, R.; Migliavacca, M. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Effect on Sun-Induced Fluorescence and Gross Primary Productivity in Mediterranean Grassland. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 2562.

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