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Open AccessArticle

PPP and PPP-AR Kinematic Post-Processed Performance of GPS-Only, Galileo-Only and Multi-GNSS

1
Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées (OMP), Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
2
Collecte Localisation Satellites (CLS Group), 8-10 rue Hermès, 31520 Ramonville Saint Agne, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(21), 2477; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11212477
Received: 31 August 2019 / Revised: 14 October 2019 / Accepted: 21 October 2019 / Published: 24 October 2019
Precise point positioning (PPP) has been used for decades not only for general positioning needs but also for geodetic and other scientific applications. The CNES-CLS Analysis Centre (AC) of the International GNSS Service (IGS) is performing PPP with phase ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR) using the zero-difference ambiguity fixing approach also known as “Integer PPP” (IPPP). In this paper we examine the postprocessed kinematic PPP and PPP-AR using Galileo-only, GPS-only and Multi-GNSS (GPS + Galileo) constellations. The interest is to examine the accuracy for each GNSS system individually but also of their combination to measure the current benefits of using Galileo within a Multi-GNSS PPP and PPP-AR. Results show that Galileo-only positioning is nearly at the same level as GPS-only; around 2–4 mm horizontal and aound 10 mm vertical repeatability (example station of BRUX). In addition, the use of Galileo system—even uncompleted—improves the performance of the positioning when combined with GPS giving mm level repeatability (improvement of around 30% in East, North and Up components). Repeatabilities observed for Multi-GNSS (GPS + GAL) PPP-AR, taking into account the global network statistics, are a little larger, with 8 mm in horizontal and 17 mm in vertical directions. This result shows that including Galileo ameliorates the best positioning accuracy achieved until today with GPS PPP-AR. View Full-Text
Keywords: GNSS; GPS; Galileo; precise point positioning (PPP); PPP with phase ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR); integer PPP (IPPP); ambiguity resolution; zero-difference ambiguity fixing; multi-GNSS GNSS; GPS; Galileo; precise point positioning (PPP); PPP with phase ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR); integer PPP (IPPP); ambiguity resolution; zero-difference ambiguity fixing; multi-GNSS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Katsigianni, G.; Loyer, S.; Perosanz, F. PPP and PPP-AR Kinematic Post-Processed Performance of GPS-Only, Galileo-Only and Multi-GNSS. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 2477.

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