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Open AccessArticle

High-Frequency Electromagnetic Induction (HFEMI) Sensor Results from IED Constituent Parts

ERDC Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Road, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
Subsurface Sensing Technologies and Consulting, LLC, Racha St. 48, Gldanis Dasaxleba, Tbilisi 0101, Georgia
Geophex, Ltd., 605 Mercury Street, Raleigh, NC 27603, USA
Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(20), 2355;
Received: 26 August 2019 / Revised: 3 October 2019 / Accepted: 5 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Subsurface Sensing Technologies)
The detection and classification of subsurface improvised explosive devices (IEDs) remains one of the most pressing military and civilian problems worldwide. These IEDs are often intentionally made with either very small metallic parts or less-conducting parts in order to evade low-frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors, or metal detectors, which operate at frequencies of 50 kHz or less. Recently, high-frequency electromagnetic induction (HFEMI), which extends the established EMI frequency range above 50 kHz to 20 MHz and bridges the gap between EMI and ground-penetrating radar frequencies, has shown promising results related to detecting and identifying IEDs. In this higher frequency range, less-conductive targets display signature inphase and quadrature responses similar to higher conducting targets in the LFEMI range. IED constituent parts, such as carbon rods, small pressure plates, conductivity voids, low metal content mines, and short wires respond to HFEMI but not to traditional low-frequency EMI (LFEMI). Results from recent testing over mock-ups of less-conductive IEDs or their components show distinctive HFEMI responses, suggesting that this new sensing realm could augment the detection and discrimination capability of established EMI technology. In this paper, we present results of using the HFEMI sensor over IED-like targets at the Fort AP Hill test site. We show that results agree with numerical modeling thus providing motives to incorporate sensing at these frequencies into traditional EMI and/or GPR-based sensors. View Full-Text
Keywords: electromagnetic induction; landmine detection; high-frequency EMI; voids; IED electromagnetic induction; landmine detection; high-frequency EMI; voids; IED
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Barrowes, B.; Prishvin, M.; Jutras, G.; Shubitidze, F. High-Frequency Electromagnetic Induction (HFEMI) Sensor Results from IED Constituent Parts. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 2355.

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