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Open AccessArticle

Large-Scale Mode Impacts on the Sea Level over the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden

1
Marine Physics Department, Faculty of Marine Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
2
Weather Forecast division, Sudan Meteorological Authority, Khartoum 574, Sudan
3
Paleoclimate Dynamics Group, Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
4
MARUM—Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, 330440 Bremen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(19), 2224; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11192224
Received: 6 August 2019 / Revised: 6 September 2019 / Accepted: 18 September 2019 / Published: 24 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions)
Falling between seasonal cycle variability and the impact of local drivers, the sea level in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden has been given less consideration, especially with large-scale modes. With multiple decades of satellite altimetry observations combined with good spatial resolution, the time has come for diagnosis of the impact of large-scale modes on the sea level in those important semi-enclosed basins. While the annual cycle of sea level appeared as a dominant cycle using spectral analysis, the semi-annual one was also found, although much weaker. The first empirical orthogonal function mode explained, on average, about 65% of the total variance throughout the seasons, while their principal components clearly captured the strong La Niña event (1999–2001) in all seasons. The sea level showed a strong positive relation with positive phase El Niño Southern Oscillation in all seasons and a strong negative relation with East Atlantic/West Russia during winter and spring over the study period (1993–2017). We show that the unusually stronger easterly winds that are displaced north of the equator generate an upwelling area near the Sumatra coast and they drive both warm surface and deep-water masses toward the West Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea, rising sea level over the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. This process could explain the increase of sea level in the basin during the positive phase of El Niño Southern Oscillation events. View Full-Text
Keywords: sea level anomaly; large-scale mode; El Niño Southern Oscillation; East Atlantic/West Russia; Empirical Orthogonal Function; Red Sea and Gulf of Aden sea level anomaly; large-scale mode; El Niño Southern Oscillation; East Atlantic/West Russia; Empirical Orthogonal Function; Red Sea and Gulf of Aden
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alawad, K.A.; Al-Subhi, A.M.; Alsaafani, M.A.; Alraddadi, T.M.; Ionita, M.; Lohmann, G. Large-Scale Mode Impacts on the Sea Level over the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 2224. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11192224

AMA Style

Alawad KA, Al-Subhi AM, Alsaafani MA, Alraddadi TM, Ionita M, Lohmann G. Large-Scale Mode Impacts on the Sea Level over the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Remote Sensing. 2019; 11(19):2224. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11192224

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alawad, Kamal A.; Al-Subhi, Abdullah M.; Alsaafani, Mohammed A.; Alraddadi, Turki M.; Ionita, Monica; Lohmann, Gerrit. 2019. "Large-Scale Mode Impacts on the Sea Level over the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden" Remote Sens. 11, no. 19: 2224. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11192224

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