Geocenter variations relate the motion of the Earth’s center of mass with respect to its center of figure, and represent global-scale redistributions of the Earth’s mass. We investigate different techniques for estimating of geocenter motion from combinations of time-variable gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and GRACE Follow-On missions, and bottom pressure outputs from ocean models. Here, we provide self-consistent estimates of geocenter variability incorporating the effects of self-attraction and loading, and investigate the effect of uncertainties in atmospheric and oceanic variation. The effects of self-attraction and loading from changes in land water storage and ice mass change affect both the seasonality and long-term trend in geocenter position. Omitting the redistribution of sea level affects the average annual amplitudes of the x
, and z
components by 0.2, 0.1, and 0.3 mm, respectively, and affects geocenter trend estimates by 0.02, 0.04 and 0.05 mm/yr for the the x
, and z
components, respectively. Geocenter estimates from the GRACE Follow-On mission are consistent with estimates from the original GRACE mission.
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