# Micro-Motion Estimation of Maritime Targets Using Pixel Tracking in Cosmo-Skymed Synthetic Aperture Radar Data—An Operative Assessment

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Estimation Procedure and Processing Architecture

#### 2.1. Computational Model

- Hull beam (keel);
- Main structural substructures;
- Local structural elements.
- On-board equipment (electrical power facilities);
- Main propulsion systems.

#### 2.2. Estimation Procedure

#### 2.3. Computational Architecture Description

## 3. Experimental Results

#### 3.1. Study Case 1

#### 3.2. Study Case 2

## 4. Discussion and Future Assessments

## 5. Materials and Methods

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

SS | Staring Spotlight |

m-m | micro-motion |

ROI | Region of Interest |

MTI | Moving Target Indicator |

LRSD | Low-Rank plus Sparse Decomposition |

RT | Radon transform |

MIMO | Multiple Input Multiple Output |

SPOT | Pixel Offset Tracking |

GLRT | Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test |

LOS | Line of Sight |

ERS | European remote sensing satellite system |

CSK | COSMO-SkyMed |

ATI | Along-Track-Interferometry |

SAR | Synthetic Aperture Radar |

ISAR | Interferometric SAR |

DEM | Digital Elevation Model |

FFT | Fast Fourier Transform |

SLC | Single Look Complex |

BP-Filter | Band Pass Filter |

## References

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**Figure 1.**Forces generated by a ship. (

**a**) General scheme observed in the 3D space. (

**b**) Representation into the range-azimuth SAR slant coordinates.

**Figure 4.**Computational architecture scheme. (

**a**) General scheme. (

**b**) Detailed scheme concerning computational blocks 7 and 8.

**Figure 5.**Schematic representation of isolated pixels with a certain shift due to space displacement.

**Figure 9.**(

**a**) Measurement point number 1 temporal trend. (

**b**) Measurement point number 1 frequency spectrum.

**Figure 10.**(

**a**) Measurement point number 2 temporal trend. (

**b**) Measurement point number 2 frequency spectrum.

**Figure 11.**(

**a**) Measurement point number 3 temporal trend. (

**b**) Measurement point number 3 frequency spectrum.

**Figure 12.**(

**a**) Measurement point number 4 temporal trend. (

**b**) Measurement point number 4 frequency spectrum.

**Figure 13.**(

**a**) Measurement point number 5 temporal trend. (

**b**) Measurement point number 5 frequency spectrum.

**Figure 14.**(

**a**) Measurement point number 6 temporal trend. (

**b**) Measurement point number 6 frequency spectrum.

**Figure 15.**(

**a**) Measurement point number 7 temporal trend. (

**b**) Measurement point number 7 frequency spectrum.

**Figure 17.**Vibrations observed along the profiles selected in Figure 16. (

**a**) Vibrational profile 1. (

**b**) Vibrational profile 2.

**Figure 20.**Study case number two results. (

**a**): Temporal vibrational trend on the measurement point 1. (

**b**): Spectrum of the vibrational trend on the measurement point 1.

**Figure 21.**Study case number two results. (

**a**): Temporal vibrational trend on the measurement point 2. (

**b**): Spectrum of the vibrational trend on the measurement point 2.

Parameter | Value |
---|---|

Near Incidence Angle | ${47.3}^{\circ}$ |

Far Incidence Angle | ${46.9}^{\circ}$ |

Range Focusing Bandwidth | 250 MHz |

Azimuth Focusing Bandwidth | 25 kHz |

Orbit height | 600 km |

Chirp central frequency | $9.6$ GHz |

Minimum points for each tile | 50 |

Acquisition time | 1 June 2014 |

Acquisition location | Taranto (Italy) |

Parameter | Value |
---|---|

Initial shifts | Coarse cross-correlation |

Number of points | 4000 |

Correlation threshold | 0.8 |

Oversampling factor | 200 |

Search pixel window | 48 × 48 pixel |

Points skimming (minimum points) | 30 |

Use of DEM | No |

Doppler Centr. Est. Strategy | Polynomials |

Parameter | Value |
---|---|

Satellite Identification | CSK Satellite one |

Satellite Height: | 627,863.775618 m |

Location: | Taranto (Italy) |

Scene Sensing Start UTC: | 2012-07-12 16:47:10.074928684 |

Scene Sensing Stop UTC: | 2012-07-12 16:47:17.643165988 |

Azimuth Focusing Bandwidth: | 23,131.019234 Hz |

Radar Central Frequency: | 9,600,000,000.000000 Hz |

Radar Wavelength: | 0.031228 Hz |

Range Focusing Bandwidth: | 247,705,078.125000 Hz |

Reference Incidence Angle: | 40.000000 Hz |

Ground Range Instrument Geometric Resolution: | 0.890077 m |

Range Focusing Bandwidth: | 247,705,078.125000 Hz |

Scene Centre Geodetic Coordinates: | ${40.463857}^{\circ}$N ${17.233015}^{\circ}$E |

Point Number | Location on the Ship |
---|---|

1 | bow |

2 | left-center |

3 | bridge area-sterncastle |

4 | stern main mast |

5 | sterncastle straight side |

6 | dashboard straight side |

7 | foward-center |

Point Number | Location on the Ship |
---|---|

1 | top of the funnel |

2 | first crane |

3 | center |

© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Biondi, F.; Addabbo, P.; Orlando, D.; Clemente, C. Micro-Motion Estimation of Maritime Targets Using Pixel Tracking in Cosmo-Skymed Synthetic Aperture Radar Data—An Operative Assessment. *Remote Sens.* **2019**, *11*, 1637.
https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11141637

**AMA Style**

Biondi F, Addabbo P, Orlando D, Clemente C. Micro-Motion Estimation of Maritime Targets Using Pixel Tracking in Cosmo-Skymed Synthetic Aperture Radar Data—An Operative Assessment. *Remote Sensing*. 2019; 11(14):1637.
https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11141637

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Biondi, Filippo, Pia Addabbo, Danilo Orlando, and Carmine Clemente. 2019. "Micro-Motion Estimation of Maritime Targets Using Pixel Tracking in Cosmo-Skymed Synthetic Aperture Radar Data—An Operative Assessment" *Remote Sensing* 11, no. 14: 1637.
https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11141637