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Article

Evaluation of the First Year of Operational Sentinel-2A Data for Retrieval of Suspended Solids in Medium- to High-Turbidity Waters

1
Department of Ecology and Coastal Management, Marine Science Institute of Andalusia (ICMAN-CSIC), Puerto Real, 11510 Cadiz, Spain
2
HYGEOS, Bât. Euratechnologies, 165 Avenue de Bretagne, 59000 Lille, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(7), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10070982
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Ocean Colour)
In this study, we apply high-resolution Sentinel-2A imagery to assist in the monitoring of the southwestern Spanish coast during its first year of data. The aim is to test suitability of MultiSpectral Imager (MSI) at higher resolution (10 m) for mapping Total Suspended Solids (TSS). Several field campaigns are carried out to collect TSS at three different sites in the Guadalquivir estuary, Cadiz Bay and Conil port. A regional multi-conditional remote sensing algorithm with a switching method that automatically selects the most sensitive TSS vs. water reflectance relationship is developed to estimate TSS concentration while avoiding saturation effects. An existing semi-analytical algorithm is calibrated by means of a cross-validation procedure based on both red 664 nm (r = 0.8, NRMSE of 25.06%) and near-infrared (NIR) 865 nm (r = 0.98, NRMSE of 10.28%) parts of the spectrum, showing the MSI sensor’s great potential to estimate TSS even though it was not designed for aquatic remote sensing. The first year of data reveals improved monitoring along the coastal region at unprecedented resolution with accuracy to detect the Estuarine Turbidity Maximum (ETM). ACOLITE and POLYMER Atmospheric Correction strategies are applied over this coastal region (no in-situ data on water reflectance). The results confirm that the flexible POLYMER algorithm can address intense sun-glint effects. These findings encourage further research of water quality studies relying on both operational Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-2B, with great implications to improve the understanding of turbid coastal and inland water environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sentinel-2; multi-conditional algorithm; atmospheric correction; Gulf of Cadiz; Guadalquivir estuary; suspended solids Sentinel-2; multi-conditional algorithm; atmospheric correction; Gulf of Cadiz; Guadalquivir estuary; suspended solids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Caballero, I.; Steinmetz, F.; Navarro, G. Evaluation of the First Year of Operational Sentinel-2A Data for Retrieval of Suspended Solids in Medium- to High-Turbidity Waters. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 982. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10070982

AMA Style

Caballero I, Steinmetz F, Navarro G. Evaluation of the First Year of Operational Sentinel-2A Data for Retrieval of Suspended Solids in Medium- to High-Turbidity Waters. Remote Sensing. 2018; 10(7):982. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10070982

Chicago/Turabian Style

Caballero, Isabel, François Steinmetz, and Gabriel Navarro. 2018. "Evaluation of the First Year of Operational Sentinel-2A Data for Retrieval of Suspended Solids in Medium- to High-Turbidity Waters" Remote Sensing 10, no. 7: 982. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10070982

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