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Open AccessArticle

Ground-Based Differential Interferometric Radar Monitoring of Unstable Mountain Blocks in a Coastal Environment

1
Faculty of Science and Technology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1433 Ås, Norway
2
ISPAS AS, P.O.B. 506, 1522 Moss, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060914
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 9 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Interferometry for Geohazards)
In this paper, we present the results of eight years of continuous monitoring with a ground-based, interferometric, real-aperture radar of two unstable mountain blocks at Tafjord on the western coast of Norway. A real-time, interferometric, ground-based radar has the capability to provide high accuracy range measurements by using the phase of the transmitted signal, thus achieving sub-millimeter accuracy when a sufficient signal-to-noise level is present. The main challenge with long term monitoring is the variations in radio refractivity caused by changes in the atmosphere. The range variations caused by refractive changes in the atmosphere are corrected using meteorological data. We use triangular corner reflectors as references to improve the signal-to-clutter ratio and improve the accuracy of the measurements. We have also shown that by using differential interferometry, a significant part of the variation caused by radio refractivity variations is removed. The overall reduction in path length variation when using differential interferometry varies from 27 to 164 times depending on the radar-to-reflector path length. The measurements reveal cyclic seasonal variations, which are coherent with air temperature. The results show that radar measurements are as accurate as data from in situ instruments like extensometers and crack meters, making it possible to monitor inaccessible areas. The total measured displacement is between 1.2 mm and 4.7 mm for the two monitored mountain blocks. View Full-Text
Keywords: interferometry; Remote Sensing by Radar; monitoring interferometry; Remote Sensing by Radar; monitoring
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gundersen, R.; Norland, R.; Rolstad Denby, C. Ground-Based Differential Interferometric Radar Monitoring of Unstable Mountain Blocks in a Coastal Environment. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 914.

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