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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(11), 1781; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10111781

Sentinel-1 and Ground-Based Sensors for Continuous Monitoring of the Corvara Landslide (South Tyrol, Italy)

1
Institute for Earth Observation, Eurac Research, Viale Druso 1, 39100 Bolzano, Italy
2
Department of Information Engineering and Computer Science, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 9, 38123 Povo, Trento, Italy
3
ESA Climate Office, ECSAT, Fermi Avenue, Harwell Science & Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX, UK
4
Institute for Interdisciplinary Mountain Research (IGF), Austrian Academy of Sciences, Technikerstr. 21a, Otto Hittmair-Platz 1, ICT, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
5
3D Optical Metrology (3DOM) Unit, Bruno Kessler Foundation (FBK), Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo, Trento, Italy
6
German Committee for Disaster Reduction (DKKV), Kaiser-Friedrich-Str. 13, 53113 Bonn, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 10 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue InSAR for Earth Observation)
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Abstract

The Copernicus Sentinel-1 mission provides synthetic aperture radar (SAR) acquisitions over large areas with high temporal and spatial resolution. This new generation of satellites providing open-data products has enhanced the capabilities for continuously studying Earth surface changes. Over the past two decades, several studies have demonstrated the potential of differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR) for detecting and quantifying land surface deformation. DInSAR limitations and challenges are linked to the SAR properties and the field conditions (especially in mountainous environments) leading to spatial and temporal decorrelation of the SAR signal. High temporal decorrelation can be caused by changes in vegetation (particularly in nonurban areas), atmospheric conditions, or high ground surface velocity. In this study, the kinematics of the complex and vegetated Corvara landslide, situated in Val Badia (South Tyrol, Italy), are monitored by a network of three permanent and 13 monthly measured benchmark points measured with the differential global navigation satellite system (DGNSS) technique. The slope displacement rates are found to be highly unsteady and reach several meters a year. This paper focuses firstly on evaluating the performance of DInSAR changing unwrapping and coherence parameters with Sentinel-1 imagery, and secondly, on applying DInSAR with DGNSS measurements to monitor an active and complex landslide. To this end, 41 particular SAR images, coherence thresholds, and 2D and 3D unwrapping processes give various results in terms of reliability and accuracy, supporting the understanding of the landslide velocity field. Evolutions of phase changes are analysed according to the coherence, the changing field conditions, and the monitored ground-based displacements. View Full-Text
Keywords: landslide monitoring; Sentinel-1; DInSAR; Small BAseline Subset (SBAS); DGNSS; South Tyrol landslide monitoring; Sentinel-1; DInSAR; Small BAseline Subset (SBAS); DGNSS; South Tyrol
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Darvishi, M.; Schlögel, R.; Kofler, C.; Cuozzo, G.; Rutzinger, M.; Zieher, T.; Toschi, I.; Remondino, F.; Mejia-Aguilar, A.; Thiebes, B.; Bruzzone, L. Sentinel-1 and Ground-Based Sensors for Continuous Monitoring of the Corvara Landslide (South Tyrol, Italy). Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1781.

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