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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(11), 1752; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10111752

Remote Sensing of Coastal Upwelling in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea: Statistical Properties and Implications for the Coastal Environment

1
Natural Sciences Department, Klaipeda University, Herkaus Manto str. 84, LT-92294 Klaipeda, Lithuania
2
Marine Research Institute, Klaipeda University, Universiteto ave. 17, LT-92294 Klaipeda, Lithuania
3
Satellite Oceanography Laboratory, Russian State Hydrometeorological University, Malookhtinsky Prosp., 98, 195196 Saint Petersburg, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
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Abstract

A detailed study of wind-induced coastal upwelling (CU) in the south-eastern Baltic Sea is presented based on an analysis of multi-mission satellite data. Analysis of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sea surface temperature (SST) maps acquired between April and September of 2000–2015 allowed for the identification of 69 CU events. The Ekman-based upwelling index (UI) was applied to evaluate the effectiveness of the satellite measurements for upwelling detection. It was found that satellite data enable the identification of 87% of UI-based upwelling events during May–August, hence, serving as an effective tool for CU detection in the Baltic Sea under relatively cloud-free summer conditions. It was also shown that upwelling-induced SST drops, and its spatial properties are larger than previously registered. During extreme upwelling events, an SST drop might reach 14 °C, covering a total area of nearly 16,000 km2. The evolution of an upwelling front during such intensive events is accompanied by the generation of transverse filaments extending up to 70 km offshore. An analysis of the satellite optical data shows a clear decline in the chlorophyll-a concentration in the coastal zone and in the shallow Curonian Lagoon, where it drops down by an order of magnitude. It was also shown that a cold upwelling front alters the stratification in the atmospheric boundary layer, leading to a sudden drop of air temperature and near-surface winds. View Full-Text
Keywords: coastal upwelling; SST; chl-a; MODIS; SE Baltic Sea; Curonian Lagoon coastal upwelling; SST; chl-a; MODIS; SE Baltic Sea; Curonian Lagoon
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Dabuleviciene, T.; Kozlov, I.E.; Vaiciute, D.; Dailidiene, I. Remote Sensing of Coastal Upwelling in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea: Statistical Properties and Implications for the Coastal Environment. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1752.

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