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Open AccessArticle

Application of Coupled-Wave Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin Approximation to Ground Penetrating Radar

Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN), 108840 Moscow, Russia
Department of Information Engineering, Electronics and Telecommunications, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
National Institute of Telecommunications, 04-894 Warsaw, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(1), 22;
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in GPR Imaging)
This paper deals with bistatic subsurface probing of a horizontally layered dielectric half-space by means of ultra-wideband electromagnetic waves. In particular, the main objective of this work is to present a new method for the solution of the two-dimensional back-scattering problem arising when a pulsed electromagnetic signal impinges on a non-uniform dielectric half-space; this scenario is of interest for ground penetrating radar (GPR) applications. For the analytical description of the signal generated by the interaction of the emitted pulse with the environment, we developed and implemented a novel time-domain version of the coupled-wave Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. We compared our solution with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) results, achieving a very good agreement. We then applied the proposed technique to two case studies: in particular, our method was employed for the post-processing of experimental radargrams collected on Lake Chebarkul, in Russia, and for the simulation of GPR probing of the Moon surface, to detect smooth gradients of the dielectric permittivity in lunar regolith. The main conclusions resulting from our study are that our semi-analytical method is accurate, radically accelerates calculations compared to simpler mathematical formulations with a mostly numerical nature (such as the FDTD technique), and can be effectively used to aid the interpretation of GPR data. The method is capable to correctly predict the protracted return signals originated by smooth transition layers of the subsurface dielectric medium. The accuracy and numerical efficiency of our computational approach make promising its further development. View Full-Text
Keywords: ground penetrating radar; electromagnetic propagation in nonhomogeneous media; time-domain analysis ground penetrating radar; electromagnetic propagation in nonhomogeneous media; time-domain analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Prokopovich, I.; Popov, A.; Pajewski, L.; Marciniak, M. Application of Coupled-Wave Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin Approximation to Ground Penetrating Radar. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 22.

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