Next Article in Journal
Double Weight-Based SAR and Infrared Sensor Fusion for Automatic Ground Target Recognition with Deep Learning
Next Article in Special Issue
Reconstructing the Roman Site “Aquis Querquennis” (Bande, Spain) from GPR, T-LiDAR and IRT Data Fusion
Previous Article in Journal
Estimating Live Fuel Moisture from MODIS Satellite Data for Wildfire Danger Assessment in Southern California USA
Previous Article in Special Issue
Application of Coupled-Wave Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin Approximation to Ground Penetrating Radar
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10010088

GPR Clutter Amplitude Processing to Detect Shallow Geological Targets

1
Geophysical Technician, World Sensing Barcelona, C/Viriat 47, 08014 Barcelona, Spain
2
Department of Fluid Mechanics, Campus Diagonal Besòs—Edifici A (EEBE), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech, Av. Eduard Maristany, 16 08019 Barcelona, Spain
3
Department of Strength of Materials and Structural Engineering, Campus Diagonal Besòs—Edifici A (EEBE), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech, Av. Eduard Maristany, 16 08019 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in GPR Imaging)
Full-Text   |   PDF [7656 KB, uploaded 11 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

The analysis of clutter in A-scans produced by energy randomly scattered in some specific geological structures, provides information about changes in the shallow sedimentary geology. The A-scans are composed by the coherent energy received from reflections on electromagnetic discontinuities and the incoherent waves from the scattering in small heterogeneities. The reflected waves are attenuated as consequence of absorption, geometrical spreading and losses due to reflections and scattering. Therefore, the amplitude of those waves diminishes and at certain two-way travel times becomes on the same magnitude as the background noise in the radargram, mainly produced by the scattering. The amplitude of the mean background noise is higher when the dispersion of the energy increases. Then, the mean amplitude measured in a properly selected time window is a measurement of the amount of the scattered energy and, therefore, a measurement of the increase of scatterers in the ground. This paper presents a simple processing that allows determining the Mean Amplitude of Incoherent Energy (MAEI) for each A-scan, which is represented in front of the position of the trace. This procedure is tested in a field study, in a city built on a sedimentary basin. The basin is crossed by a large number of hidden subterranean streams and paleochannels. The sedimentary structures due to alluvial deposits produce an amount of the random backscattering of the energy that is measured in a time window. The results are compared along the entire radar line, allowing the location of streams and paleochannels. Numerical models were also used in order to compare the synthetic traces with the field radargrams and to test the proposed processing methodology. The results underscore the amount of the MAEI over the streams and also the existence of a surrounding zone where the amplitude is increasing from the average value to the maximum obtained over the structure. Simulations show that this zone does not correspond to any particular geological change but is consequence of the path of the antenna that receives the scattered energy before arriving to the alluvial deposits. View Full-Text
Keywords: GPR; clutter; backscattering; scattering modelling GPR; clutter; backscattering; scattering modelling
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Salinas Naval, V.; Santos-Assunçao, S.; Pérez-Gracia, V. GPR Clutter Amplitude Processing to Detect Shallow Geological Targets. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 88.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top