Next Article in Journal
Implementing Sustainability Co-Creation between Universities and Society: A Typology-Based Understanding
Next Article in Special Issue
Rural Tourism: Development, Management and Sustainability in Rural Establishments
Previous Article in Journal
Spatial Expansion and Soil Organic Carbon Storage Changes of Croplands in the Sanjiang Plain, China
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 589;

Strategies to Introduce n-Butanol in Gasoline Blends

Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Av. Camilo José Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Gilles Lefebvre and Francisco J. Sáez-Martínez
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 27 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [2825 KB, uploaded 12 April 2017]   |  


The use of oxygenated fuels in spark ignition engines (SIEs) has gained increasing attention in the last few years, especially when coming from renewable sources, due to the shortage of fossil fuels and global warming concern. Currently, the main substitute of gasoline is ethanol, which helps to reduce CO and HC emissions but presents a series of drawbacks such as a low heating value and a high hygroscopic tendency, which cause higher fuel consumption and corrosion problems, respectively. This paper shows the most relevant properties when replacing ethanol by renewable n-butanol, which presents a higher heating value and a lower hygroscopic tendency compared to the former. The test matrix carried out for this experimental study includes, on the one hand, ethanol substitution by n-butanol in commercial blends and, on the other hand, either ethanol or gasoline substitution by n-butanol in E85 blends (85% ethanol-15% gasoline by volume). The results show that the substitution of n-butanol by ethanol presents a series of benefits such as a higher heating value and a greater interchangeability with gasoline compared to ethanol, which makes n-butanol a promising fuel for SIEs in commercial blends. However, the use of n-butanol in E85 blends substituting either gasoline or ethanol may cause cold-start problems due to the lower vapor pressure of n-butanol. For this reason, a combined substitution of n-butanol by both gasoline and ethanol is proposed so that n-butanol can be used without start problems. View Full-Text
Keywords: n-butanol; gasoline; E85; interchangeability; density; heating value; vapor pressure n-butanol; gasoline; E85; interchangeability; density; heating value; vapor pressure

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lapuerta, M.; Ballesteros, R.; Barba, J. Strategies to Introduce n-Butanol in Gasoline Blends. Sustainability 2017, 9, 589.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top