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Article

China’s Land Resources Dilemma: Problems, Outcomes, and Options for Sustainable Land Restoration

United Nations University Institute for Integrated Management of Material Fluxes and of Resources (UNU-FLORES), 01067 Dresden, Saxony, Germany
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Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2362; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122362
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Degradation and Sustainable Management of Land)
Pressing issues such as water and food security, health, peace, and poverty are deeply linked to land degradation. We use China’s major land restoration programs as a case offering perspective on the existing problems in China’s major policies for improving degraded land and maintaining land resources in three dimensions. The shortcomings and outcomes in terms of biophysical consequences, socioeconomic benefits, and political goals are addressed, namely (i) non-integrated land resources management creates new problems while solving existing problems, (ii) non-participatory processes and “one-size-fits-all” measures compromise socioeconomic benefits, and (iii) implementation outcomes conflict with policy targets for sustainable land management and development. Based on discussions for more sustainable land management, we conclude that China needs to create a new mode of ‘economy and environment’ in plans and actions of restoring degraded land resources. Establishing multifunctional land-use systems based on formulating and balancing multiple benefits/services across socio-ecological sectors can be an option to achieve such a mode. At the end, recommendations are given for research and implementation that are not only vital for China but also relevant for other regions since the challenges of afforestation and sustainable land development faced in China are not unique. View Full-Text
Keywords: land degradation; sustainable land management; afforestation; multifunctional land use; ecosystem functions and services land degradation; sustainable land management; afforestation; multifunctional land use; ecosystem functions and services
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, L.; Schwärzel, K. China’s Land Resources Dilemma: Problems, Outcomes, and Options for Sustainable Land Restoration. Sustainability 2017, 9, 2362. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122362

AMA Style

Zhang L, Schwärzel K. China’s Land Resources Dilemma: Problems, Outcomes, and Options for Sustainable Land Restoration. Sustainability. 2017; 9(12):2362. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122362

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Lulu, and Kai Schwärzel. 2017. "China’s Land Resources Dilemma: Problems, Outcomes, and Options for Sustainable Land Restoration" Sustainability 9, no. 12: 2362. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122362

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