Next Article in Journal
Measuring Water Transport Efficiency in the Yangtze River Economic Zone, China
Next Article in Special Issue
Calculation of Characterization Factors of Mineral Resources Considering Future Primary Resource Use Changes: A Comparison between Iron and Copper
Previous Article in Journal
Advanced Strategies for Net-Zero Energy Building: Focused on the Early Phase and Usage Phase of a Building’s Life Cycle
Previous Article in Special Issue
Inventory Analysis and Social Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Waste-to-Energy Incineration in Taiwan
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2283;

Implications of Water Use and Water Scarcity Footprint for Sustainable Rice Cultivation

The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Prachauthit, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140, Thailand
Center of Excellence on Energy Technology and Environment, PERDO, Bangkok 10140, Thailand
Centre of Excellence on enVironmental strategy for GREEN business (VGREEN), Faculty of Environment, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10903, Thailand
Department of Environmental Technology and Management, Faculty of Environment, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [1683 KB, uploaded 8 December 2017]   |  


Rice cultivation is a vital economic sector of many countries in Asia, including Thailand, with the well-being of people relying significantly on selling rice commodities. Water-intensive rice cultivation is facing the challenge of water scarcity. The study assessed the volumetric freshwater use and water scarcity footprint of the major and second rice cultivation systems in the Chao Phraya, Tha Chin, Mun, and Chi watersheds of Thailand. The results revealed that a wide range of freshwater use, i.e., 0.9–3.0 m3/kg of major rice and 0.9–2.3 m3/kg of second rice, and a high water use of rice was found among the watersheds in the northeastern region, like the Mun and Chi watersheds. However, the water scarcity footprint results showed that the second rice cultivation in watersheds, like in Chao Phraya and Tha Chin in the central region, need to be focused for improving the irrigation water use efficiency. The alternate wetting and drying (AWD) method was found to be a promising approach for substituting the pre-germinated seed broadcasting system to enhance the water use efficiency of second rice cultivation in the central region. Recommendations vis-à-vis the use of the water stress index as a tool for agricultural zoning policy were also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: rice; water; water scarcity footprint; AWD system; sustainability; Thailand rice; water; water scarcity footprint; AWD system; sustainability; Thailand

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Silalertruksa, T.; Gheewala, S.H.; Mungkung, R.; Nilsalab, P.; Lecksiwilai, N.; Sawaengsak, W. Implications of Water Use and Water Scarcity Footprint for Sustainable Rice Cultivation. Sustainability 2017, 9, 2283.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top