Next Article in Journal
Reciprocal Relations between Official Development Assistance Recipient and Donor Countries: Case of South Korean Overseas Construction Business and Southeast Asian Countries’ Economy
Next Article in Special Issue
Assessment of Selected Parameters of the Automatic Scarification Device as an Example of a Device for Sustainable Forest Management
Previous Article in Journal
Exploring Performance Determinants of China’s Cable Operators and OTT Service Providers in the Era of Digital Convergence—From the Perspective of an Industry Platform
Previous Article in Special Issue
An Analysis of Selected Physical Properties of Ancient Wheat Species
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Automation of the Acorn Scarification Process as a Contribution to Sustainable Forest Management. Case Study: Common Oak

Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Biomedical Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
Faculty of Forestry, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Al. 29 Listopada 46, 31-425 Kraków, Poland
Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Przemyslowy Instytut Maszyn Rolniczych (PIMR), ul. Starolecka 31, 60-963 Poznan, Poland
Faculty of Production and Power Engineering, University of Agriculture in Krakow, ul. Balicka 116B, 30-149 Kraków, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2276;
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
PDF [5931 KB, uploaded 21 December 2017]


The basic principle of silviculture is the rational use of natural regeneration. The acceleration and equalisation of seed germination and an increase of the field seed germination ability are affected by seed scarification, which results in the destruction or weakening of the seed cover. Acorn scarification is performed manually, in the standing position, most often in adapted work stations, whose geometry is adjusted by the staff to their own anthropometric dimensions. An added value of acorn scarification consists in the ability to visually assess the health status of the cotyledons visible on the cross-section, making it possible to infer the potential use of a seed for sowing. However, due to the scope and duration of the activities involved, manual scarification is a process that is monotonous and physically as well as psychologically tiring for its performer. Automating of this process allows for effective replacement of human labour. The results obtained from the use of the vision system designed to determine the length and orientation of acorns may be considered satisfactory. The implementation of the seed orientation detection algorithm using the Harris detector was 90% accurate. Studies and analyses have shown that the process of acorn scarification has a positive effect on the later improvement of uniformity and acceleration of seedling emergence. In the case of seeds subjected to scarification, 83% of the acorns germinated within 4 to 6 weeks after sowing. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainable forestry; seedling; acorn; scarification; automatic device sustainable forestry; seedling; acorn; scarification; automatic device

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tadeusiewicz, R.; Tylek, P.; Adamczyk, F.; Kiełbasa, P.; Jabłoński, M.; Pawlik, P.; Piłat, A.; Walczyk, J.; Szczepaniak, J.; Juliszewski, T.; Szaroleta, M. Automation of the Acorn Scarification Process as a Contribution to Sustainable Forest Management. Case Study: Common Oak. Sustainability 2017, 9, 2276.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top