User-Generated Social Media Events in Tourism
2. Theoretical Background
2.1. Tourism Events, Social Media and User Empowerment
2.2. Social Media Based on Photographs
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Measures, Metrics and Methods to Assess Social Media Contributions
3.2. Object-Oriented Framework
- photos(): This method calculates the total number of pictures that have been submitted with the corresponding hashtags.
- dissemination(): This method calculates the quantity of potential Instagrammers who have received the pictures in first instance, by adding up the followers of users.
- interactivity(): This method calculates the quantity of reactions (likes and comments) that users’ posts had.
- weight(): This method calculates the growth in percentage that the number of user participants represents over the average visitors (influx attribute) in the area and season when there is no special event. This enables the comparison of the impact of events in different areas and/or dates.
- range(x, y): This is a parameterized method that enables the calculation of different types of ranges such as posts per user (to detect the most active users), followers per user (to detect their role as ‘influencers’), likes per post and comments per post (to detect the most engaging posts). Ranges are calculated in percentage to compare events with different numbers of participants.
3.3. Participant Observation
3.4. Case Study: Instagram Meetups
4.1. Participants (Users) Posting Pictures on Instagram and Dissemination
4.2. Posts and Interactivity through Instagram
4.3. Participant Observation
- Online community (Figure 7a): UGEs are interesting from a sociological point of view in the sense that they represent the translation of an online community into a reality, with offline impacts. Parallel to UGC, UGEs have the characteristic that people attending may or may not know one another but they have the potential to reach thousands of anonymous people in seconds, and have the capacity to go viral. This idea is reinforced by the significant percentage of Instagrammer participants (about one third) who came to the event alone but nevertheless as a member of the community, participants’ strong interpersonal interactivity, and the crucial role of ‘influencers’ in brand dissemination. Moreover, both quantitative and qualitative results showed remarkable participant identification and faithfulness to these types of events in relation to the online community.
- UGC through social media (Figure 7b): The results showed that tourist UGEs are intrinsically related to the production of online UGC through social media and generate user engagement and interactivity through likes and comments. Social media are integrated within UGEs, to the extent that the event would not be possible, would lose all its significance or would not have happened without the specific social media, and would not have any significance either without people travelling physically to the site. The production of UGC in UGEs is a sine qua non condition, which indicates their high potential economic impact, as C2C communication through UGC in online communities encourages sales and those who communicate most are those who purchase the most .
- Engagement and faithfulness (attraction capacity) (Figure 7f): Participant observation, indicated the perception of intrinsic motives of altruism of the community and social identification  which encourage users to engage with the online brand communities. The engagement with the events through social media is very high. As shown by the quantitative results and in spite of the limited size of the events, for the three together, in a very short period of time, about 300 Instagram users posted 1290 pictures, creating high engagement and online ‘buzz’, receiving about 200,000 likes and 16,000 comments in total, and potentially reaching more than three-quarter of a million people (followers). All that at little or no cost to destinations or tourism businesses—both in terms of time or money. Moreover, as quantitative results demonstrate, UGEs have a great capacity to attract people, and specifically Instagram UGEs can have a great deal of influence on and attraction for destinations, reinforcing the idea of Baksi  of their emotional bonding capacity, their ability to generate favourable images of a destination, and loyalty. In this respect, both quantitative and qualitative results showed remarkable faithfulness to these events and high repeat rate, with more than 20% of participants attending more than one event, and most confirming they would like to participate in similar future events with like-minded people with whom they felt identified.
- Tourist brand/image dissemination (Figure 7g): The promotional capacity of UGEs though online image/brand dissemination is extremely important. Because they originated from an online community, tourism UGEs may entail greater dissemination than regular events which use social media as part of their promotion. At UGEs, and especially Instagram meetups, UGC production is part of what people ‘have’ to and ‘want’ to do to participate in the event. Participants partly engaged in the photography competition to win a prize, but even if the prize had not existed, they would have participated for community recognition to gain a reputation/prestige  as an Instagrammer, and for the hedonism of posting experiential pictures. The core idea that to be a tourist is almost by necessity to be a photographer  is maintained or even incremented in UGE contexts bound to social media, especially Instagram, where it is even more compulsory to take and post pictures. Therefore, in UGEs, the reproduction of tourist images  and the closing of the hermeneutic circle [68,69] through social media may be more intense, conscious, and purposeful, and contribute highly to promoting the destination or organization. Analysis shows that only a few selected photographs were posted on Instagram, probably the pictures users consider the ‘best’ or most ‘original’, offering an ideal picture of the place or the event. UGEs can also help to reinforce destination brand identity and image, as well as create and reinforce territorial links, related to tourism assets and offers.
- Influence and virality (Figure 7e): In relation to the latter, manifest content of online photographs has been found to influence the attitudes toward a destination and affect destination image formation . If UGEs are successful and participants enjoy them and have fun, as the participant observation indicates, they will attach and transmit these sensations and feelings in relation to the destination, which will be reinforced by followers’ comments. The positive link between taking photographs and tourist satisfaction and happiness  is thus supported by participant observation. These positive sensations can then be a source of inspiration for other travellers, increasing their desire to travel to the destination and participate in future events. Besides, these events organized by peers of the tourist and the information they transmit through eWOM bound to online communities (organic sources) can have a greater impact and provide much more effective and trustworthy marketing for the destination or organization than official sources, which are seen as interested traditional forms of advertising (overt induced sources) according to Gartner’s  classification of tourist information sources. This idea of their high influence on users is reinforced by participant observation, which showed users’ attachment and identification. Users perceived the motives behind the events as altruistic and disinterested, related to pride in their own country and promoting tourism, as well as socializing and having fun, which makes them more “permeable” to influence. In essence, UGEs have what makes UGC so influential and trustworthy: no perceived underlying self-interest or economic interest. Remarkably, along the lines of Hartmann , a few highly influential users were detected, who accounted for the majority of online disseminations, showing the great potential influence of certain posts and their capacity to go viral, reaching thousands of people in seconds.
- Event convocation and management by users (Figure 7d): Tourism UGEs, especially in the case of Instagram meetups, and unlike other spontaneous events created through social media, show the organizational capacity and empowerment of users as they are fully structured or semi-structured, organized and managed by users, and may entail formal registrations, membership, etc. The paper results show that ski resorts and business brands participated and mixed with participants as just another participant, informally and not as ‘organizers’, thus becoming more ‘human’ in the eyes of tourists. The sponsor’s brand was clearly integrated in the event through the photography competition. The participant observation also showed in practice an event organization by peers and for peers, with meeting points, its publicity, participant identifications, group activities, etc.
- DMOs and tourism firms (Figure 7): Previous studies [2,33], although acknowledging people’s new empowered and central role in events through UGC, always assumed that the company or the destination is a co-organizer or has an important degree of control over the event, or that the organization initiates social media integration in the event as part of a marketing strategy. Evaluation models, too, have usually been proposed from a management perspective, from the point of view or interest of the organization, even if in some cases they acknowledge the role of different stakeholders, including users . Nonetheless, the empowered role of users in events, enabled by social media, can be much deeper, to the point of a complete paradigm shift in which users are the main initiators, creators, organizers and realizers of the event. Methods must be sought which respond to this new context and can contribute to broader evaluation models. As pointed out above, social media are not only useful tools to promote an event but also to organize collective action . However, in spite of not taking the event’s initiative, sponsors (firms or destinations) are convenient, and even necessary, for the creation of UGEs, as they make these events more attractive; provide logistical, economic, and/or promotional support and advantages for participants; and also result in promotional and economic benefits for organizations. Therefore, although the roles of companies and destinations in UGEs may change, they will likely continue to be very important for their development and collaboration in different ways.
- Paradigm shift: User initiative and empowerment (Figure 7c): The shift is that the event is at the initiative of the people, not the company or tourist destination, and it is taken in a user milieu. This reinforces the arguments which assess the empowerment of tourists and their increasing role as active agents [9,10,71] generating online content and events in a solely user milieu, for which tourism organizations have difficulty accessing, much less control. In this context, companies and destinations acquire a facilitating role, which may be more or less proactive and may entail promotion, sponsorships, etc., but the initiative is not theirs. Therefore, the sentence ‘We need to learn to let go’ (Lafley, as cited in Hartmann ) may even acquire a deeper meaning or be used to go further, as the control of the event may be mostly or even entirely out of the hands of the destination or organization. The sentence could be transformed into: Sometimes, organizations need to let go and let customers take the reins!
6. Concluding Remarks
6.1. Theoretical and Methodological Contributions
6.2. Managerial Implications
6.3. Limitations and Future Research
Conflicts of Interest
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|La Molina (LM)||Port Ainé (PA)||Vall de Núria (VN)|
|Ski area/slopes||61 km/53||30 km/25||7 km/11|
|Winter season (14/15) Visitors||265,798||105,296||45,944|
|Influx (avg. daily visitors)||2950||1170||510|
|Day of the event||18/01/2015||22/02/2015||08/03/2015|
|Participant places||200 places||450 places||500 places|
|Specific event hashtags||#descobreixlamolina #clicalamolina||#descobreixportaine #clicaportaine||#descobreixvalldenuria #clicavalldenuria|
|Different Users Posting Photos||Total Followers of Users||Avg. Followers Per User||Max. Followers||Average Posts Per User||Max. Number of Posts|
|LM||PA||VN||LM + PA||PA + VN||LM + VN||All 3||SUM|
|No. of users||65||53||68||11||12||18||11||238|
|Total Photos||Total Likes||Avg. Likes Per Photo||Max. Likes||Total Comments||Avg. Comments Per Photo||Max. Comments|
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Marine-Roig, E.; Martin-Fuentes, E.; Daries-Ramon, N. User-Generated Social Media Events in Tourism. Sustainability 2017, 9, 2250. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122250
Marine-Roig E, Martin-Fuentes E, Daries-Ramon N. User-Generated Social Media Events in Tourism. Sustainability. 2017; 9(12):2250. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122250Chicago/Turabian Style
Marine-Roig, Estela, Eva Martin-Fuentes, and Natalia Daries-Ramon. 2017. "User-Generated Social Media Events in Tourism" Sustainability 9, no. 12: 2250. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122250