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Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2162;

Factors Affecting the Adoption of Gamified Smart Tourism Applications: An Integrative Approach

Department of Culture & Tourism Content, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
Department of Journalism and Mass Communication, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 03063, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobile Technology and Smart Tourism Development)
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Considering that the core concerns in sustainability are threats to the survival of humankind and the ecosystems that humans depend on, changing the consumption and production behaviors of individuals and society is inevitable. However, people are reluctant to change their own behavior in support of sustainability goals. This tendency seems to be especially strong in tourism because the main value of tourism is hedonic utility. Thus, the tourism industry is now introducing gamification and smart tourism to shift tourist behavior toward sustainability, but most of studies and practices only focus on the performance and application of gamification without considering customer adoption patterns and perceptions during the process. This study empirically investigated what factors affect the adoption of smart tourism applications that incorporate game elements, using the Google Maps tourist guide program. As an initial approach, we incorporated diverse theoretical approaches: perceived usefulness; perceived ease of use; perceived enjoyment from technology acceptance model; information and interaction motivations from the uses and gratifications theory; the network effect; distributive justice; flow as responses to the game characteristics of smart tourism applications; and information privacy concerns as a negative factor for diffusion. The result showed that hedonic characteristics of the gamified smart tourism application (GSTA) are strong in adoption. Perceived enjoyment had a significant influence on the intention to use, but information quality, related to cognitive experience, did not. The flow and perceived distributive justice associated with the game content were not significant, but the interaction motivation was significant in the research model. The results of this study show that individuals regard a GSTA as a low-level game tool. Also, it is important to preoccupy the smart tourism application market in terms of marketing strategy because the network effect is relevant to both perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment. We also found that the need to provide personal information would negatively affect the adoption of a gamified smart tourism application. View Full-Text
Keywords: smart tourism; gamification; technology adoption; technology acceptance model; hedonic goods smart tourism; gamification; technology adoption; technology acceptance model; hedonic goods

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Yoo, C.; Kwon, S.; Na, H.; Chang, B. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Gamified Smart Tourism Applications: An Integrative Approach. Sustainability 2017, 9, 2162.

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