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Open AccessArticle

Sustainability Measures of Urban Public Transport in Cities: A World Review and Focus on the Asia/Middle East Region

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Public Transport Research Group, Institute of Transport Studies, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, 23 College Walk, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
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Institute of Transport Studies, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, 23 College Walk, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Wijnand Veeneman and Eefje Cuppen
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010043
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 December 2016 / Published: 28 December 2016
Previous studies of public transport sustainability in cities have been very limited to date, particularly in more developing countries located throughout Asia and the Middle East. This paper assesses the sustainability of urban public transport systems in cities by adopting a quantitative measurement framework containing 15 public transport sustainability indicators. It compares aggregate sustainability performance of urban public transport in international regions of cities, and then examines the relative sustainability of selected cities in the Asia and Middle East region. The world region analysis shows that Eastern Europe, Asia, and Latin America achieve the highest aggregate normalised scores for sustainable public transport, in that order. In general, the results suggest that western developed countries (Western Europe, North America, and Oceania) have better performance on environmental and social indicators but poorer performance on system effectiveness and economic indicators. Asia and Latin America perform the other way round; better on economic and system effectiveness and worse on social and environmental indicators. Eastern Europe is one of the few regions with higher level performance all round. The city-based analysis of Asia/Middle East suggested that out of the 26 cities studied, the top 3 cities in terms of sustainable public transport in the Asia and Middle East Region are: 1st, Manila (Philippines); 2nd, Tokyo (Japan); and 3rd, Chennai (India). Dubai (United Arab Emirates (UAE), rated 26th), Shizuoka (Japan, rated 25th) and Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia, rated 24th) were the lowest rated cities. The paper explores the implications of the findings and makes suggestions for future research. View Full-Text
Keywords: public transport; transit; sustainability; Asia; Middle East; world review; cities public transport; transit; sustainability; Asia; Middle East; world review; cities
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De Gruyter, C.; Currie, G.; Rose, G. Sustainability Measures of Urban Public Transport in Cities: A World Review and Focus on the Asia/Middle East Region. Sustainability 2017, 9, 43.

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