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Open AccessArticle

Integrated Multi-Trophic Recirculating Aquaculture System for Nile Tilapia (Oreochlomis niloticus)

Chemical Engineering Research Unit for Value Adding of Bioresources, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
Center of Excellence for Marine Biotechnology, Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Payathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10300, Thailand
School of Energy Science and Engineering, Vidyasirimedhi Institute of Science and Technology, Rayong 21210, Thailand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sean Clark
Sustainability 2016, 8(7), 592;
Received: 17 May 2016 / Revised: 16 June 2016 / Accepted: 20 June 2016 / Published: 29 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agriculture–Beyond Organic Farming)
Three densities of the sex-reversed male Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (20, 25, 50 fish/m3) were cultivated in an integrated multi-trophic recirculating aquaculture system (IMRAS) that involves the ecological relationship between several living organisms, i.e., phytoplankton, zooplankton, and aquatic plants. The results indicated that, by providing proper interdependency between various species of living organisms, the concentrations of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate in the system were maintained below dangerous levels for Nile tilapia throughout the cultivation period. The highest wet weight productivity of Nile tilapia of 11 ± 1 kg was achieved at a fish density of 50 fish/m3. The aquatic plants in the treatment tank could effectively uptake the unwanted nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) compounds with the highest removal efficiencies of 9.52% and 11.4%, respectively. The uptake rates of nitrogen and phosphorus by aquatic plants could be ranked from high to low as: Egeria densa > Ceratophyllum demersum > Vallisneria spiralis and Vallisneria americana > Hygrophila difformis. The remaining N was further degraded through nitrification process, whereas the remaining P could well precipitate in the soil sediment in the treatment tank. View Full-Text
Keywords: Nile tilapia; phytoplankton; zooplankton; aquatic plant; aquaculture; multi-trophic; recirculating aquaculture system Nile tilapia; phytoplankton; zooplankton; aquatic plant; aquaculture; multi-trophic; recirculating aquaculture system
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Sri-uam, P.; Donnuea, S.; Powtongsook, S.; Pavasant, P. Integrated Multi-Trophic Recirculating Aquaculture System for Nile Tilapia (Oreochlomis niloticus). Sustainability 2016, 8, 592.

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