A Bottom-Up Building Stock Model for Tracking Regional Energy Targets—A Case Study of Kočevje
2.1. Data Sources
- Databases from Geodetic Administration of the Republic of Slovenia—Register of Real Estates ;
- Eco Fund, Slovenian Environmental Public Fund ;
- National energy efficiency action plan 2014–2020 for Slovenia ;
- Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia: provides data on the number and area of completed dwellings (new construction, extensions, conversion according to the CC-SI classification), the number of demolished dwellings and others ;
- Register of Energy performance certificates ;
- REUS, Survey of the energy efficiency in Slovenia .
- A renovation can be recorded in Register of Real Estates, but the owner did not apply for a subsidy. The data on renovation is recorded in Register of Real Estates only.
- A renovation of the roof for a particular building was recorded in 2002 in Register of Real Estates and the owner received a subsidy for the replacement of the window and insulation of a roof in 2013. The overall process of renovation identification needs to identify the last recorded renovation of a building component from all data sources.
2.2. Bottom-Up Model
- Unrefurbished: Based on the existing data, none of the building envelope components (façade, roof, or windows) or technical systems had undergone renovation in the past. Such a building is identified as unrefurbished and therefore has potential for renovation on all building envelope components and technical systems. Unrefurbished buildings can be subject to partial, full, and deep renovation, e.g., a building built in 1975 has not any undergone renovation works in the past, therefore has a potential for renovation of façade and roof and replacement of windows and technical systems for heating and domestic hot water (DHW).
- Partial Renovation: Based on the existing data, the building has undergone renovation on one or two building envelope components (façade, roof, or windows) in the past, therefore the building has the potential for renovation on one or two components of the thermal envelope and technical systems. Such a building is identified as partially renovated and can be subject of partial, full or deep renovation, e.g., a building built in 1975 had a renovated façade in 2000, therefore it has potential for renovation of the roof and replacement of windows and technical systems for heating and DHW.
- Full Renovation: Based on the existing data, buildings identified as fully renovated can be of two types.
- The building has undergone renovation of two building envelope components and replacement of technical system for heating. Such a building has potential for renovation on only one building envelope component and can therefore be the subject of partial renovation, e.g., a building built in 1975 had a renovated façade in 2000, roof in 2005, and replaced boiler for heating and DHW in 2012, therefore it has a potential for renovation with the replacement of the windows and technical systems for heating and DHW.
- The building has undergone renovation of all three building envelope components, while the technical systems have not been replaced. Such a building has a potential for renovation only for the replacement of technical systems and can therefore be subject to partial renovation, e.g., a building built in 1975 had a renovated façade in 2000, roof in 2005, and replaced windows in 2012, therefore it has a potential for the replacement of technical systems for heating and DHW.
- Deep Renovation: the building has undergone major renovation works in the past, all building envelope components had been renovated, heating and DHW systems have been replaced and thus the building is considered to have a low energy demand for space heating . Such buildings do not have any potential for renovation and are considered as deeply renovated.
3. Results for the Kočevje Case Study
3.1. Modelling of Initial State
3.3. Building Stock Renovation Scenarios
- renovation rates (partial, full, and deep renovation)
- transition of technologies used for heating and domestic hot water
- share of building using the district heating network (deriving from municipal plans for the expansion).
4. Discussion and Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
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|Period of Construction||Level of Building||Single Family Building|
|Multi Family Building|
|Up to 1945||nonrefurbished||516||147||171||226|
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Šijanec Zavrl, M.; Stegnar, G.; Rakušček, A.; Gjerkeš, H. A Bottom-Up Building Stock Model for Tracking Regional Energy Targets—A Case Study of Kočevje. Sustainability 2016, 8, 1063. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8101063
Šijanec Zavrl M, Stegnar G, Rakušček A, Gjerkeš H. A Bottom-Up Building Stock Model for Tracking Regional Energy Targets—A Case Study of Kočevje. Sustainability. 2016; 8(10):1063. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8101063Chicago/Turabian Style
Šijanec Zavrl, Marjana, Gašper Stegnar, Andraž Rakušček, and Henrik Gjerkeš. 2016. "A Bottom-Up Building Stock Model for Tracking Regional Energy Targets—A Case Study of Kočevje" Sustainability 8, no. 10: 1063. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8101063