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Open AccessArticle

Seeing GMOs from a Systems Perspective: The Need for Comparative Cartographies of Agri/Cultures for Sustainability Assessment

by 1,*, 1,† and 1,2,†
1
GenØk Centre for Biosafety, Forskningsparken, PB 6418, 9294 Tromsø, Norway
2
Agroecology and Food Systems, University of Vic-Central University of Catalonia, c/de la Laura, 13, 08500 Vic, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11321-11344; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811321
Received: 24 July 2015 / Revised: 7 August 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture)
Over the past twenty years, agricultural biotechnologies have generated chronically unresolved political controversies. The standard tool of risk assessment has proven to be highly limited in its ability to address the panoply of concerns that exist about these hybrid techno/organisms. It has also failed to account for both the conceptual and material networks of relations agricultural biotechnologies require, create and/or perform. This paper takes as a starting point that agricultural biotechnologies cannot be usefully assessed as isolated technological entities but need to be evaluated within the context of the broader socio-ecological system that they embody and engender. The paper then explores, compares and contrasts some of the methodological tools available for advancing this systems-based perspective. The article concludes by outlining a new synthesis approach of comparative cartographies of agri/cultures generated through multi-sited ethnographic case-studies, which is proposed as a way to generate system maps and enable the comparison of genetically modified (GM) food with both conventional and alternative agri-food networks for sustainability assessment. The paper aims to make a unique theoretical and methodological contribution by advancing a systems-based approach to conceptualising and assessing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and proposing a synthesised methodology for mapping networks of relations across different agri/cultures. View Full-Text
Keywords: GMOs; biotechnology; agrifood systems; social cartographies; follow the thing; food networks; multi-sited ethnography; sustainability; socio-ecological systems GMOs; biotechnology; agrifood systems; social cartographies; follow the thing; food networks; multi-sited ethnography; sustainability; socio-ecological systems
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Herrero, A.; Wickson, F.; Binimelis, R. Seeing GMOs from a Systems Perspective: The Need for Comparative Cartographies of Agri/Cultures for Sustainability Assessment. Sustainability 2015, 7, 11321-11344.

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