Using Mobile Devices in Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable Development—Comparing Theory and Practice in a Nation Wide Survey
- Goal orientation: Is an educational purpose for the MED-supported activity clearly formulated and adequately outlined?
- Educational concept: Is the MED-supported activity adequately structured? Are the participants’ interests and requirements considered?
- Pedagogical orientation: Are the pedagogical capabilities of MED-supported activities adequately used? Are multiple learning-opportunities provided?
- Achievement: How strong is the potential for achievement within the MED-supported activity? How is it measured and are (empirical) data accessible?
- Motivation and interest: How strong is the potential of the MED-supported activity to motivate learners? Is the motivation just grounded on a novelty effect?
- Users participation: To what extent are the users able to participate and to create their own content within the MED-supported activity?
- Methodological use of MEDs: How are MEDs used—just for navigation or for more constructive activities (e.g., documentation, data acquisition, creating and sharing information).
- Educational and pedagogical dimension: To what extent are constructivist learning paradigms observable within the activities and are they supported by mobile devices? Methods foster different learning paradigms in different manners (e.g., step-by-step learning or self-determined discoveries, informal setting or formal learning, exposition or exploration, collaborative or individual activities).
- Content-related dimension: Which content-related aspects are fostered? What are the aims of the activity? Are they fruitfully supported by the use of mobile devices and are learners’ interests addressed adequately?
- Technological dimension: What are the benefits and limitations which mobile technology provides for the educational activities in environmental education and ESD?
- Economic dimension: Which are the economic prerequisites to develop a project-based educational activity using mobile devices that is viable in the long-term?
- Target groups: Who is addressed with MED-supported educational activities?
- Provider: Which institutions provide educational activities using mobile devices?
- Technology: Which devices are used? Which network technology, platforms and digital tools are used?
- Educational and pedagogical orientation: Which are the educational concepts underlying the educational activities supported with mobile devices?
- Environmental education/ESD inputs and outcomes: Which goals of environmental education/ESD are intended within the educational activities using mobile devices and which outcomes are expected?
2.1. Questionnaire Development and Online Survey
(5 items, Cronbach’s α = 0.90)
|- participants do … vs. … do not discuss with others|
- participants are … vs. … are not responsible for the common result of the activity
|degree of media orientation |
(2 items, Cronbach’s a = 0.73)
|- educational activity is strongly … vs. … not influenced by digital media|
(3 items, Cronbach’s a = 0.64)
|- participants are passive … vs. …active during the activity|
- participants are receptive … vs. …productive
(5 items, Cronbach’s a = 0.71)
|- participants follow a predefined time-schedule … vs. … have a self-determined working speed within the educational program|
- MED-activity provides (formal) … vs. … does not provide connection to curricula (informal)
(4 items, Cronbach’s a = 0.68)
|- learning goals are set … vs. … participants set their own goals |
- topics of the educational activity are predefined … vs. … participants work on self-determined topics
(10 items, Cronbach’s α = 0.70)
|Which nature experience do you foster with your activity?|
- aesthetic dimension (perceiving the beauty of nature)
- social dimension (human-animal relationship)
- recreational dimension (leisure-time in nature)
(6 items, Cronbach’s α = 0.82)
|Which criteria does your activity meet?|
- global and local aspects were involved
- social, cultural, economic and ecological aspects were discussed
(3 items, Cronbach’s α = 0.68)
|Which are the goals of your activity?|
- environmental knowledge
- attitudes towards nature
- pro-environmental behavior
(12 items, Cronbach’s α = 0.82)
|- being able to take one’s else perspective|
- being able to participate
2.2. Nationwide Survey with Online Questionnaire
3.1. Descriptive Analyses of the Online Survey Data
3.2. Classification of the Educational Activities
3.3. Divergences between Delphi Results and Survey Data
4. Discussion and Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
References and Notes
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Schaal, S.; Lude, A. Using Mobile Devices in Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable Development—Comparing Theory and Practice in a Nation Wide Survey. Sustainability 2015, 7, 10153-10170. https://doi.org/10.3390/su70810153
Schaal S, Lude A. Using Mobile Devices in Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable Development—Comparing Theory and Practice in a Nation Wide Survey. Sustainability. 2015; 7(8):10153-10170. https://doi.org/10.3390/su70810153Chicago/Turabian Style
Schaal, Steffen, and Armin Lude. 2015. "Using Mobile Devices in Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable Development—Comparing Theory and Practice in a Nation Wide Survey" Sustainability 7, no. 8: 10153-10170. https://doi.org/10.3390/su70810153