Next Article in Journal
What Is Sustainable Agriculture? A Systematic Review
Previous Article in Journal
Sustainable Urban Transport in the Developing World: Beyond Megacities
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2015, 7(6), 7806-7832;

Drugs and Protected Areas: Coca Cultivation and Social Acceptance of Bahuaja-Sonene National Park in Peru

Chair Group Agriculture and Food Economics, Technische Universität München, Alte Akademie 12, 85354 Freising, Germany
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Received: 25 January 2015 / Revised: 10 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
Full-Text   |   PDF [640 KB, uploaded 18 June 2015]


Cocaine is extracted from coca: a native bush from the Amazon rainforest. Coca is mostly grown in remote areas to avoid government intervention, and it has been increasingly cultivated inside protected areas (PAs). The effects of coca cultivation on the preservation of PAs are largely unknown. This research uses panel data (2006–2008) from a total of 684 farmers to evaluate the influence of coca growing on the acceptance of PAs, using as case study a farmer community located within the buffer zone of Bahuaja-Sonene National Park (Peru). All farmers are coffee growers and some complement their income with coca production. The area has not been subject of forced coca eradication activities. The data were analyzed using probit models with covariance matrix correction for cluster errors by year, with and without interaction effects. The results suggest that coca growers are more likely to state a positive opinion about the PA than non-coca growers. This may reflect the fact that non-coca growers need extensive areas of land for coffee cultivation in order to approach the economic benefits obtained by farmers who also grow coca. However the likelihood of stating a positive opinion by coca growers decreases the higher the perception that coca cultivation has increased in the region. Coca growers may be afraid that large coca areas would lead to the implementation of forced eradication activities. In such a case, the BSNP would restrict the access to remote land resources, which in turn decreases the support for this PA. View Full-Text
Keywords: protected area; drug; coca; cocaine; social acceptance; Peru protected area; drug; coca; cocaine; social acceptance; Peru
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Garcia-Yi, J. Drugs and Protected Areas: Coca Cultivation and Social Acceptance of Bahuaja-Sonene National Park in Peru. Sustainability 2015, 7, 7806-7832.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top