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Open AccessArticle

Linking an Integrative Behavior Model to Elements of Environmental Campaigns: An Analysis of Face-to-Face Communication and Posters against Littering

1
Department of Environmental Systems Science (D-USYS), Natural and Social Science Interface (NSSI), ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 33, ETH SOL F.7, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland
2
IG Saubere Umwelt (IGSU), Naglerwiesenstrasse 4, CH-8049 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Armin Lude
Sustainability 2015, 7(6), 6937-6956; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7066937
Received: 6 March 2015 / Revised: 20 May 2015 / Accepted: 21 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Education for Sustainable Development)
Diverse elements of anti-littering campaigns may be effective at addressing different causes of littering. Therefore, a complementary approach combining various elements is needed to ensure the behavioral effectiveness of corresponding campaigns. The present study investigates personal, problem-centered face-to-face conversations compared to three different types of anti-littering posters (witty, authoritarian, environmentally oriented). In total, N = 147 persons participated in the questionnaire-based survey. Pictures of the three anti-littering posters were presented to all respondents, but only 82 of them additionally took part in problem-centered face-to-face conversations. Participants of the latter condition liked the conversations significantly more and judged them more effective for reducing littering than each of the three posters. Intentions for future behavior also improved more in the condition with face-to-face communications than in the reference condition in which only the anti-littering posters were presented. Regarding the posters, it was found that the witty and the environmentally-oriented poster were liked more and judged to be more effective by the respondents than the authoritarian poster. Findings are discussed in relation to the design of campaigns, which combine elements with reference to an integrative behavior model covering a broad range of factors, including processes of justifications, habit formation and reactance. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental education; sustainability; littering; communication; face-to-face; slogans; reactance; justifications; habits environmental education; sustainability; littering; communication; face-to-face; slogans; reactance; justifications; habits
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Hansmann, R.; Steimer, N. Linking an Integrative Behavior Model to Elements of Environmental Campaigns: An Analysis of Face-to-Face Communication and Posters against Littering. Sustainability 2015, 7, 6937-6956.

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