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The World is Yours: “Degrowth”, Racial Inequality and Sustainability

“Friday off”: Reducing Working Hours in Europe

ICREA, ICTA-UAB and Research & Degrowth, Bellatera 08193, Barcelona, Spain
MIT Technology and Law Program, MIT E40-239 Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Masters Program in Barcelona Graduate School of Economics, 08193 Bellatera, Barcelona, Spain
Sustainability 2013, 5(4), 1545-1567;
Received: 23 January 2013 / Revised: 16 February 2013 / Accepted: 25 March 2013 / Published: 11 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Degrowth: The Economic Alternative for the Anthropocene)
This article explores the pros and cons for reducing working hours in Europe. To arrive to an informed judgment we review critically the theoretical and empirical literature, mostly from economics, concerning the relation between working hours on the one hand, and productivity, employment, quality of life, and the environment, on the other. We adopt a binary economics distinction between capital and labor productiveness, and are concerned with how working hours may be reduced without harming the earning capacity of workers. There are reasons to believe that reducing working hours may absorb some unemployment, especially in the short-run, even if less than what is advocated by proponents of the proposal. Further, there may well be strong benefits for the quality of peoples’ lives. Environmental benefits are likely but depend crucially on complementary policies or social conditions that will ensure that the time liberated will not be directed to resource-intensive or environmentally harmful consumption. It is questionable whether reduced working hours are sustainable in the long-term given resource limits and climate change. We conclude that while the results of reducing working hours are uncertain, this may be a risk worth taking, especially as an interim measure that may relieve unemployment while other necessary structural changes are instituted. View Full-Text
Keywords: working hours; Europe; 4-day workweek; environmental sustainability; quality of life; productivity; productiveness; unemployment; binary economics working hours; Europe; 4-day workweek; environmental sustainability; quality of life; productivity; productiveness; unemployment; binary economics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kallis, G.; Kalush, M.; O.'Flynn, H.; Rossiter, J.; Ashford, N. “Friday off”: Reducing Working Hours in Europe. Sustainability 2013, 5, 1545-1567.

AMA Style

Kallis G, Kalush M, O.'Flynn H, Rossiter J, Ashford N. “Friday off”: Reducing Working Hours in Europe. Sustainability. 2013; 5(4):1545-1567.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kallis, Giorgos, Michael Kalush, Hugh O.'Flynn, Jack Rossiter, and Nicholas Ashford. 2013. "“Friday off”: Reducing Working Hours in Europe" Sustainability 5, no. 4: 1545-1567.

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