- freely available
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 1909-1923; https://doi.org/10.3390/su2071909
- Concerned with the future;
- About acquiring information;
- Anticipating or forecasting change under conditions that are often uncertain;
- The development of a strategic vision;
- The evaluation of different course of action;
- Facilitating political decision making; and
- Value laden and political.
2. Community Based Tourism as Community Development, Community Engagement and as a Planning Process
2.1. Community Based Tourism as Community Development
- Success and survival at the expense of spatial isolation and structural independences;
- Local employment and benefits at the expense of local initiation and control;
- Social status and mobility at the expense of social cohesion and harmony; and
- Incipient environmentalism at the expense of ecological sustainability.
2.2. Community Based Tourism as Community Engagement
- The setting of the vision, goals and objectives;
- The collection and analyses of relevant data and information;
- A public involvement process;
- The evaluation of alternative future scenarios;
- The selection and implementation of a course of action and associated policies;
- The establishment of a monitoring and evaluation process; and
- A feedback mechanism to ensure adaptive management as a response to changing circumstances and new information.
- enhance local socio economic benefits ;
- increase the limits of local tolerance through participation by locals in the tourism development process ;
- assist communities to be more responsive to intensifying competition from the globalisation of trade, business and travel ; and
- help secure the commitment of local people, without which the sustainable development of tourism is extremely difficult if not impossible .
2.3. Community Based Tourism as a Planning Procedure
- The creation of a vision to establish an overall framework for tourism development.
- The setting of goals and objectives to bring that vision about.
- The development of programs designed to accomplish the relevant objectives.
- An evaluation of the feasibility usually financial of the proposed project (if necessary and adaptation or refinement).
- The implementation and ongoing monitoring of the project established as a result of the planning and decision making process.
Case Study Location
4. Community Based Bird Watching Tourism
4.1. How the Community Became Involved in Tourism
4.2. Decision Making
4.3. Land Use Assessment System
5. Discussion and Conclusions: A New Conceptualization for CBT
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