The Effects of Non-Uniformly-Aged Photovoltaic Array on Mismatch Power Loss: A Practical Investigation towards Novel Hybrid Array Configurations
2.1. Conventional and Proposed Configurations of PV Array Module
2.2. Dataset of the Tested PV Modules under Non-Uniform Aging Conditions
2.3. Calculation of Degradation Rate and Identification of Aging Factors
2.4. PV Module Arrangement Process Based on SCC Technique
3. Experimental Work
3.1. Experimental Procedure of PV Array Power Measurement in Outdoor Conditions
3.2. Analysis of Experimental Results
3.3. Validation of Experimental Results
- A professional PV system analyzer (PROVA 1011) built on IEC standards was used to convert data from the I–V curve under normal operating conditions (OPC) to data under standard test conditions (STC).
- IEC 60904-1 specifies that for outdoor I–V curve measurements, the irradiance must be at least 800 W/m2. As a result, the experimental data were collected between irradiance ranges from 800 to 950 W/m2.
- The practical array module rearrangement was accomplished using the SCC-based technique, wherein Electro Solar Limited Bangladesh, a commercial PV module producer, tested the module datasheet.
- The performance comparison was carried out for the novel hybrid array configurations with series–parallel configurations in terms of mismatch power losses. This comparison demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid configurations and their practical relevance.
- The non-uniform aging of PV modules can lead to significant mismatch power losses in PV arrays, which can reduce the overall system efficiency.
- When compared to standard PV array configurations, hybrid PV array topologies that integrate PV modules with various interconnections can dramatically reduce mismatch power losses.
- In hybrid array topologies, the positioning of PV modules with varying degrees of degradation can have an impact on the performance of the entire system, with some configurations resulting in higher output power increases than others.
- Utilizing a module rearrangement technique based on SSC, which can lessen the effects of mismatch power losses, these output power improvements are further boosted.
- The novelty of the work is some new hybrid PV is introduced, and two of them (SP-LD, LD-SP) performed with higher output power by reducing the %MPL considering all other configurations.
- One of the main differences of this research work compared to others is that here the different standard and hybrid array configurations are compared experimentally considering non-uniform aging conditions, while in other research the application was for a different scenario of partial shading conditions. To the best of the author’s knowledge, 12 different array configurations were not tested before in the literature.
- It is important to note that the trends observed in Figure 12 and Figure 13 may not be universally applicable to all aged photovoltaic arrays due to variations in aging characteristics and conditions. The generalizability of the trends depends on several factors, including the specific aging mechanisms, the degree of non-uniformity, and the operating conditions. These figures reflect the performance of the proposed hybrid array configurations in mitigating mismatch power losses in the context of non-uniformly-aged arrays. While they provide valuable insights and guidance for similar scenarios, their applicability to different aging results needs to be assessed on a case-by-case basis.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Refs.||Array Configurations||Key Findings||Application|
|||SP, TCT, HC, BL, and a novel hybrid||A 6 × 6 array is used to perform the simulation. The novel hybrid configuration performed better considering output power.||partial shading|
|||SP, TCT, BL, and HC||Mathematical model-based simulation is performed and TCT shows the highest output power.||partial shading|
|||SP, BL, and TCT||Different array dimensions 2 × 6, 6 × 2, 4 × 3, and 3 × 4 is investigated via simulation. TCT performed maximum output in all cases.||partial shading|
|||TCT, BL, SP, HC, and HC-TCT)||Experimental comparisons are conducted and TCT performed the lowest mismatch loss.||partial shading|
|||TCT, SP-TCT, BL-TCT, and BL-HC||A 4 × 4 array is used to perform the simulation in the MATLAB Simulink platform.||partial shading|
|||Conventional (SP, TCT, BL, HC) and hybrid (SP-TCT, BL-TCT, HC-TCT)||Simulation is carried out, where hybrid configurations performed better than the conventional interconnection in terms of MPL reduction.||moving shading|
|||SP-TCT, BL-TCT, BL-HC, and NS hybrid||Simulink-based work is carried out, and hybrid NS configuration yielded the highest output power for this shading scenario.||diagonal shading|
|Data Parameters of Photovoltaic Module|
|Pmpp (watt)||Isc (amp)||Voc (volt)||Vmpp (volt)||Impp (amp)||FF|
|Parameter||Limit (Max)||Precision (%)|
|Light intensity||2000 W/m2||±3|
|SI||Configuration||Output Variable for the Array||MPL (%)||RE (%)|
|Voltage (V)||Current (A)||Power (W)|
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Mansur, A.A.; Amin, M.R.; Lipu, M.S.H.; Islam, M.I.; Ashique, R.H.; Shams, Z.B.; Haq, M.A.u.; Maruf, M.H.; Shihavuddin, A. The Effects of Non-Uniformly-Aged Photovoltaic Array on Mismatch Power Loss: A Practical Investigation towards Novel Hybrid Array Configurations. Sustainability 2023, 15, 13153. https://doi.org/10.3390/su151713153
Mansur AA, Amin MR, Lipu MSH, Islam MI, Ashique RH, Shams ZB, Haq MAu, Maruf MH, Shihavuddin A. The Effects of Non-Uniformly-Aged Photovoltaic Array on Mismatch Power Loss: A Practical Investigation towards Novel Hybrid Array Configurations. Sustainability. 2023; 15(17):13153. https://doi.org/10.3390/su151713153Chicago/Turabian Style
Mansur, Ahmed Al, Md. Ruhul Amin, Molla Shahadat Hossain Lipu, Md. Imamul Islam, Ratil H. Ashique, Zubaeer Bin Shams, Mohammad Asif ul Haq, Md. Hasan Maruf, and ASM Shihavuddin. 2023. "The Effects of Non-Uniformly-Aged Photovoltaic Array on Mismatch Power Loss: A Practical Investigation towards Novel Hybrid Array Configurations" Sustainability 15, no. 17: 13153. https://doi.org/10.3390/su151713153