# Development of a Rapid Inspection Driving Cycle for Battery Electric Vehicles Based on Operational Safety

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

- (1)
- Long cycle times. For example, the total durations of the NEDC, World Light Vehicle Test Cycle (WLTC), and China Light-Duty Vehicle Test Cycle-Passenger (CLTC-P) are 1180 s, 1800 s, and 1800 s. In addition, the amount of data and the complex combinations are difficult to find in real life.
- (2)
- The driving cycle inspection items are single and cannot complete the practical operation test, especially the dynamic test of electric vehicle operational safety.

- (1)
- We innovatively propose three inspection items according to the operational safety of national standards. Meanwhile, an inspection calculation method of operational safety is developed based on the acceleration changing rate.
- (2)
- The multi-cycle inspection method with the stable pedal mode is developed and collects sufficient driving data by OBD. Gauss filtering algorithm is applied for data preprocessing. The support vector machine is adopted to construct the rapid inspection driving cycle.
- (3)
- Validation of the developed rapid driving cycle on the test bench. The thresholds for gliding safety, driving safety, and braking safety are evaluated based on the test results.

## 2. Electric Vehicle Inspection Items

## 3. Test Scheme

#### 3.1. Test Site and Route Selection

#### 3.2. Data Collection and Test Method

^{2}, suburban cycle maximum deceleration was ≥−1.0 m/s

^{2}, urban cycle acceleration was ≥0.15 m/s

^{2}, and urban cycle deceleration was ≤−0.15 m/s

^{2}[25]. So, the acceleration range of the acceleration segment was confirmed in [0.15 m/s

^{2}, 1.5 m/s

^{2}], the deceleration range of deceleration segment was [−1.5 m/s

^{2}, −0.15 m/s

^{2}], and the maximum speed was 65 km/h. To precisely determine the range of acceleration, a limit device was used to lock the accelerator/brake pedal opening. The driver drove the test vehicle to 65 km/h with three modes of accelerator pedal opening of 30%, 60%, and 90% respectively, then braked to 0 with three modes of brake pedal opening of 30%, 60%, and 90% respectively. Finally, the acceleration and deceleration values under different pedal modes were calculated. The results are shown in Figure 3.

^{2}, the maximum acceleration for 60% accelerator pedal opening was 2.66 m/s

^{2}, and the maximum acceleration for 90% accelerator pedal opening was 3.83 m/s

^{2}. The maximum deceleration for 30% brake pedal opening was 1.36 m/s

^{2}, the maximum deceleration for 60% brake pedal opening was 2.98 m/s

^{2}, and the maximum deceleration for 90% brake pedal opening was 4.45 m/s

^{2}. Therefore, 30% accelerator/brake pedal opening satisfies the design requirements in this paper. The accelerator and brake pedal mode were set at 30% pedal opening.

## 4. Data Processing

## 5. Driving Cycle Construction

## 6. Driving Cycle Verification

## 7. Conclusions

- (1)
- According to the existing electric vehicles inspection methods and means, combined with the relevant standards for electric vehicles and the accident causes, the electric vehicle safety inspection items were identified, which included gliding comfort, driving stability, and braking coordination. Then, an acceleration changing rate was purposed as an items inspection method based on the identified inspection items. Using the basic theory of the driving cycle, the accelerator/brake pedal opening, acceleration, and velocity were selected as test parameters. Then, a multi-cycle operational safety test method was proposed with stable pedal mode and set several accelerator/braking cycle tests were set to obtain the operational safety test data.
- (2)
- Advanced filtering algorithms were used to remove burrs and duplicate data from the collected data. A support vector machine was used for regression cycles and fused with a spliced rapid inspection driving cycle with a total time of 204 s for electric vehicles. Then the range of three kinematic segments stability was determined. Finally, this rapid inspection driving cycle was verified on the testing bench. The verification results showed that the maximum driving acceleration changing rate error was 9%. The maximum tested driving acceleration changing rate error was 6%, and the maximum verification gliding acceleration changing rate error was 2.7%. The maximum tested gliding acceleration changing rate error was 4%, and the maximum verification braking acceleration changing rate error was 6.9%. The maximum tested braking acceleration changing rate error was 3.4%. All three inspection items had a good calculation effect. The safety thresholds for driving acceleration changing rate were less than 0.5, the gliding acceleration changing rate was less than 0.1, and the braking acceleration changing rate was less than 0.1.
- (3)
- A rapid inspection driving cycle was established for the operational safety of electric vehicles, which provided some technical support for the “annual inspection” of electric vehicles. However, there are also certain limitations. For example, there are many models of electric vehicles with widely varying braking strategies. A single driver and changing different drivers may increase the calculation error. Therefore, further analysis can be performed for different braking energy recovery strategies, different vehicles and multi-cycle following correction.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

FTP-75 | Federal Test Procedure-75 |

ECO | Economical and Ecological |

NEDC | New European Driving Cycle |

VMAS | Vehicle Mass Analysis System |

WLTC | World Light Vehicle Test Cycle |

CLTC-P | China Light-Duty Vehicle Test Cycle-Passenger |

GPS | Global Position System |

OBD | On-Board Diagnosis |

$t$ | sliding time window |

$\Delta t$ | velocity sampling interval |

$a$ | acceleration |

$\Delta a$ | acceleration changing rate |

SVM | Support Vector Machine |

$b$ | bias vector |

$\u2329,\u232a$ | dot product |

$w$ | parameter vector |

$f(x)$ | optimal function |

$\u2329\varphi ({x}_{i}),\varphi ({x}_{j})\u232a$ | kernel function |

${\xi}_{i},{\xi}_{i}{}^{*}$ | slack variable |

$C$ | penalty coefficient |

$\epsilon $ | insensitive coefficient |

RMSE | Root Mean Square Error |

${y}_{{}^{i}}$ | regression value |

$f({x}_{{}^{i}})$ | true value |

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**Figure 3.**Acceleration/deceleration values at different pedal openings: (

**a**) Acceleration under different accelerator pedal openings; (

**b**) Deceleration under the different braking pedal openings.

**Figure 12.**The results of the following test: (

**a**) driving segment test results; (

**b**) gliding segment test results; (

**c**) braking segment test results.

Standard | Test Content | Testing Significance | Testing Indicator |
---|---|---|---|

GB21670-2008 | Technical requirements and testing methods for passenger car braking systems | Test the abnormal braking systems performance | Braking time and average deceleration |

GB/T12543-2009 | Acceleration performance test methods for motor vehicle | Test the abnormal acceleration performance | Coefficient of variation of velocity |

GB/T18385-2005 | Electric vehicles power performance test methods | Test the abnormal acceleration performance of electric vehicles | The arithmetic square root of acceleration time |

QC/T 1089-2017 | Requirements and test methods for regenerative braking systems in electric vehicles | Test the abnormal braking systems performance of electric vehicles | Coefficient of variation of mean fully developed deceleration |

GB 38900-2020 | Items and methods for safety technology inspection of motor vehicles | Regulation of motor vehicle safety technology inspection | Different tests, different indicators |

Parameter | Symbol | Value | Unit |
---|---|---|---|

Curb weight | ${m}_{e}$ | 1580 | Kg |

Wheelbase | $L$ | 2660 | mm |

Vehicle body height | $h$ | 1510 | mm |

Maximum speed | ${u}_{\mathrm{max}}$ | 150 | km/h |

Motor rated power | ${P}_{e}$ | 110 | kW |

Motor peak power | ${P}_{e\mathrm{max}}$ | 135 | kW |

Motor rated torque | ${T}_{e}$ | 350 | Nm |

Motor rated speed | ${n}_{e}$ | 4000 | rpm |

Motor peak torque | ${T}_{e\mathrm{max}}$ | 350 | Nm |

Motor peak speed | ${n}_{e\mathrm{max}}$ | 7500 | rpm |

Motor Maximum efficiency | $\eta $ | 96 | % |

Battery capacity | $Q$ | 52.5 | kWh |

Battery discharge depth | $D$ | 80 | % |

Nominal driving range | $S$ | 410 | km |

Nominal energy consumption | $q$ | 13.1 | kWh/100 km |

Kinematic Segments | The Qualified Range of Stability | The Tested Range of Stability | The RMSE between the Qualified and Tested Results | The RMSE between the Tested Results |
---|---|---|---|---|

driving segment | [−0.35, −0.04] | [−0.49, −0.03] | 9% | 6% |

gliding segment | [0.05, 0.09] | [0.03, 0.13] | 2.7% | 4% |

braking segment | [−0.04, 0.095] | [0.02, 0.1] | 6.9% | 3.4% |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Jiao, Z.; Ma, J.; Zhao, X.; Zhang, K.; Meng, D.; Li, X.
Development of a Rapid Inspection Driving Cycle for Battery Electric Vehicles Based on Operational Safety. *Sustainability* **2022**, *14*, 5079.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095079

**AMA Style**

Jiao Z, Ma J, Zhao X, Zhang K, Meng D, Li X.
Development of a Rapid Inspection Driving Cycle for Battery Electric Vehicles Based on Operational Safety. *Sustainability*. 2022; 14(9):5079.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095079

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Jiao, Zhipeng, Jian Ma, Xuan Zhao, Kai Zhang, Dean Meng, and Xuebo Li.
2022. "Development of a Rapid Inspection Driving Cycle for Battery Electric Vehicles Based on Operational Safety" *Sustainability* 14, no. 9: 5079.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095079