# Selecting a Rational Scheme of Delivery by Road Transport: A Case Study of Goods Deliveries from China to Russia through Kazakhstan

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Review of Recent Literature

- Loaded containers are sent to Manchuria along the Harbin railway, through border crossings to Zabaikalsk, and further along the route of the Trans-Siberian Railway to the destination points;
- Delivery of goods from China via Kazakhstan is the alternative to rail freight transport Manchuria–TransSib.

## 3. Proposed Methodology

- The consignment weight $Q$ [t];
- The total delivery distance $L$ [km].

- The durations of searching operations performed to find third-party companies that participate in the delivery process—${\tilde{t}}_{sC}$ for carriers, ${\tilde{t}}_{sFT}$ for freight terminals, and ${\tilde{t}}_{sFF}$ for other partner forwarders [h];
- The total duration of loading and unloading operations ${\tilde{t}}_{sLU}$ [h];
- The durations of loading and unloading operations per 1 t of cargo in a consignment: ${\tilde{t}}_{t}^{L}$ for loading and ${\tilde{t}}_{t}^{U}$ for unloading [h/t];
- The time needed to form a transport package ${\tilde{t}}_{cont}$ [h/unit];
- The average speed of a vehicle $\tilde{V}$ [km/h];
- The duration of downtime at a customs point ${\tilde{t}}_{cust}$ [h];
- The durations of loading and unloading operations per 1 t of cargo in cases when the freight terminal facilities are used—${\tilde{t}}_{t}^{TL}$ for loading and ${\tilde{t}}_{t}^{TU}$ for unloading [h/t];
- The per-unit duration of unpacking and packing operations ${\tilde{t}}_{h}^{pack}$ [h/t];
- The time of intermediate storage of cargo at the warehouse of a terminal ${\tilde{t}}_{store}$ [h].

- Costs of finding a client ${E}_{search}^{FF}$ [KZT];
- Costs related to the preparation of transport documentation ${E}_{doc}^{FF}$ [KZT];
- Costs of finding carriers, other partner forwarders (if needed), or outsourcing organizations (if needed) ${E}_{just}^{FF}$ [KZT];
- Costs of the organization and implementation of loading and unloading operations ${E}_{LU}^{FF}$ [KZT];
- Costs of the services provided by carriers ${E}_{C}^{FF}$ [KZT];
- Expenses for services provided by outsourcing organizations (if such are involved) ${E}_{FT}^{FF}$ [KZT];
- Customs payments (if applied—in case of international deliveries) ${E}_{cust}^{FF}$ [KZT].

- Direct costs of delivery operations ${E}_{tr}^{C}$ [KZT];
- Costs of idle time during loading and unloading operations ${E}_{LU}^{C}$ [KZT];
- Costs of vehicle’s idle time in the customs point ${E}_{cust}^{C}$ [KZT].

- Costs of loading and unloading operations ${E}_{LU}^{FT}$ [KZT];
- Costs of the formation and disbandment of transport packages (if such services are performed) ${E}_{pack}^{FT}$ [KZT].
- Costs of storage operations (if performed) ${E}_{store}^{FT}$ [KZT].

- Cost of the preparation of a transportation unit ${E}_{pack}^{FO}$ [KZT];
- Losses due to withdrawal of funds that present the value of goods to be delivered ${E}_{loss}^{FO}$ [KZT];
- Expenses of the forwarders’ services ${E}_{FF}^{FO}$ [KZT].

## 4. Case Study and Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 4.**Dependence of the efficiency criterion on the average consignment weight (the mean delivery distance is 700 km).

**Figure 5.**Dependence of the efficiency criterion on the average delivery distance (the mean consignment weight is 40 t).

**Figure 6.**Dependence of the total expenses on the average consignment weight (the mean delivery distance is 700 km).

**Figure 7.**Dependence of the total expenses on the average delivery distance (the mean consignment weight is 40 t).

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Naumov, V.; Zhumatayeva, G.; Taran, I.; Bazarbekova, M.; Kenzhegaliyev, B.
Selecting a Rational Scheme of Delivery by Road Transport: A Case Study of Goods Deliveries from China to Russia through Kazakhstan. *Sustainability* **2022**, *14*, 4954.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14094954

**AMA Style**

Naumov V, Zhumatayeva G, Taran I, Bazarbekova M, Kenzhegaliyev B.
Selecting a Rational Scheme of Delivery by Road Transport: A Case Study of Goods Deliveries from China to Russia through Kazakhstan. *Sustainability*. 2022; 14(9):4954.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14094954

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Naumov, Vitalii, Gaziza Zhumatayeva, Igor Taran, Madina Bazarbekova, and Batyrbek Kenzhegaliyev.
2022. "Selecting a Rational Scheme of Delivery by Road Transport: A Case Study of Goods Deliveries from China to Russia through Kazakhstan" *Sustainability* 14, no. 9: 4954.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14094954