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Review

Global Mangrove Deforestation and Its Interacting Social-Ecological Drivers: A Systematic Review and Synthesis

1
Risk and Environmental Studies, Karlstad University, Universitetsgatan 2, 651 88 Karlstad, Sweden
2
Centre for Research on Sustainable Societal Transformation (CRS), Karlstad University, Universitetsgatan 2, 651 88 Karlstad, Sweden
3
Nova Information Management School, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 1070-312 Lisbon, Portugal
4
Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Instituto de Geografia e Ordenamento do Território, Edificio I, Universidade de Lisboa, R. Branca Edmée Marques, 1600-276 Lisboa, Portugal
5
LEAF, Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food, Instituto Superior de Agronomia (ISA), Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors have contributed equally.
Academic Editors: Raghab Ray, Sahadev Sharma and Rupesh K Bhomia
Sustainability 2022, 14(8), 4433; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14084433
Received: 2 March 2022 / Revised: 4 April 2022 / Accepted: 5 April 2022 / Published: 8 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Ecosystem Ecology, Conservation and Sustainability)
Globally, mangrove forests are substantially declining, and a globally synthesized database containing the drivers of deforestation and drivers’ interactions is scarce. Here, we synthesized the key social-ecological drivers of global mangrove deforestation by reviewing about two hundred published scientific studies over the last four decades (from 1980 to 2021). Our focus was on both natural and anthropogenic drivers with their gradual and abrupt impacts and on their geographic coverage of effects, and how these drivers interact. We also summarized the patterns of global mangrove coverage decline between 1990 and 2020 and identified the threatened mangrove species. Our consolidated studies reported an 8600 km2 decline in the global mangrove coverage between 1990 and 2020, with the highest decline occurring in South and Southeast Asia (3870 km2). We could identify 11 threatened mangrove species, two of which are critically endangered (Sonneratia griffithii and Bruguiera hainseii). Our reviewed studies pointed to aquaculture and agriculture as the predominant driver of global mangrove deforestation though their impacts varied across global regions. Gradual climate variations, i.e., sea-level rise, long-term precipitation, and temperature changes and driven coastline erosion, salinity intrusion and acidity at coasts, constitute the second major group of drivers. Our findings underline a strong interaction across natural and anthropogenic drivers, with the strongest interaction between the driver groups aquaculture and agriculture and industrialization and pollution. Our results suggest prioritizing globally coordinated empirical studies linking drivers and mangrove deforestation and global development of policies for mangrove conservation. View Full-Text
Keywords: mangroves; drivers; aquaculture; agriculture; climate change; extreme events; coastal wetlands; interaction mangroves; drivers; aquaculture; agriculture; climate change; extreme events; coastal wetlands; interaction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bhowmik, A.K.; Padmanaban, R.; Cabral, P.; Romeiras, M.M. Global Mangrove Deforestation and Its Interacting Social-Ecological Drivers: A Systematic Review and Synthesis. Sustainability 2022, 14, 4433. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14084433

AMA Style

Bhowmik AK, Padmanaban R, Cabral P, Romeiras MM. Global Mangrove Deforestation and Its Interacting Social-Ecological Drivers: A Systematic Review and Synthesis. Sustainability. 2022; 14(8):4433. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14084433

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bhowmik, Avit K., Rajchandar Padmanaban, Pedro Cabral, and Maria M. Romeiras. 2022. "Global Mangrove Deforestation and Its Interacting Social-Ecological Drivers: A Systematic Review and Synthesis" Sustainability 14, no. 8: 4433. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14084433

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