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Review

Analysis of Lanthanum and Cobalt Leaching Aimed at Effective Recycling Strategies of Solid Oxide Cells

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Department of Environment, Land, and Infrastructure Engineering (DIATI), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca Degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin, Italy
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Department Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca Degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin, Italy
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Department of Energy (DENERG), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca Degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin, Italy
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Environment Park S.P.A., Via Livorno 60, 10144 Turin, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paolo S. Calabrò
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3335; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063335
Received: 2 February 2022 / Revised: 13 February 2022 / Accepted: 10 March 2022 / Published: 12 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Waste and Recycling)
Lanthanum and cobalt are Critical Raw Materials and components of Solid Oxide Cells—SOCs electrodes. This review analyses lanthanum and cobalt leaching from waste materials (e-waste, batteries, spent catalysts), aiming to provide a starting point for SOC recycling, not yet investigated. The literature was surveyed with a specific interest for leaching, the first phase of hydrometallurgy recycling. Most references (86%) were published after 2012, with an interest higher (85%) for cobalt. Inorganic acids were the prevailing (>80%) leaching agents, particularly for lanthanum, while leaching processes using organic acids mostly involved cobalt. The experimental conditions adopted more diluted organic acids (median 0.55 M for lanthanum and 1.4 M for cobalt) compared to inorganic acids (median value 2 M for both metals). Organic acids required a higher solid to liquid ratio (200 g/L), compared to inorganic ones (100 g/L) to solubilize lanthanum, while the opposite happened for cobalt (20 vs. 50 g/L). The process temperature didn’t change considerably with the solvent (45–75 °C for lanthanum, and 75–88 °C for cobalt). The contact time was higher for lanthanum than for cobalt (median 3–4 h vs. 75–85 min). Specific recycling processes are crucial to support SOCs value chain in Europe, and this review can help define the existing challenges and future perspectives. View Full-Text
Keywords: circular economy; critical raw material; green chemistry; leaching; SOC circular economy; critical raw material; green chemistry; leaching; SOC
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MDPI and ACS Style

Benedetto Mas, A.; Fiore, S.; Fiorilli, S.; Smeacetto, F.; Santarelli, M.; Schiavi, I. Analysis of Lanthanum and Cobalt Leaching Aimed at Effective Recycling Strategies of Solid Oxide Cells. Sustainability 2022, 14, 3335. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063335

AMA Style

Benedetto Mas A, Fiore S, Fiorilli S, Smeacetto F, Santarelli M, Schiavi I. Analysis of Lanthanum and Cobalt Leaching Aimed at Effective Recycling Strategies of Solid Oxide Cells. Sustainability. 2022; 14(6):3335. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063335

Chicago/Turabian Style

Benedetto Mas, Alice, Silvia Fiore, Sonia Fiorilli, Federico Smeacetto, Massimo Santarelli, and Ilaria Schiavi. 2022. "Analysis of Lanthanum and Cobalt Leaching Aimed at Effective Recycling Strategies of Solid Oxide Cells" Sustainability 14, no. 6: 3335. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063335

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