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Review

Degradation of Azo Dyes: Bacterial Potential for Bioremediation

1
Laboratory of Biotechnology of Enzymes and Biotransformations, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Guamá, Belém 66075-110, PA, Brazil
2
Faculty of Biotechnology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Guamá, Belém 66075-110, PA, Brazil
3
Post Graduation Program in Biotechnology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Guamá, Belém 66075-110, PA, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mohd Rafatullah and Masoom Raza Siddiqui
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1510; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031510
Received: 30 November 2021 / Revised: 22 December 2021 / Accepted: 31 December 2021 / Published: 28 January 2022
The use of dyes dates to ancient times and has increased due to population and industrial growth, leading to the rise of synthetic dyes. These pollutants are of great environmental impact and azo dyes deserve special attention due their widespread use and challenging degradation. Among the biological solutions developed to mitigate this issue, bacteria are highlighted for being versatile organisms, which can be applied as single organism cultures, microbial consortia, in bioreactors, acting in the detoxification of azo dyes breakage by-products and have the potential to combine biodegradation with the production of products of economic interest. These characteristics go hand in hand with the ability of various strains to act under various chemical and physical parameters, such as a wide range of pH, salinity, and temperature, with good performance under industry, and environmental, relevant conditions. This review encompasses studies with promising results related to the use of bacteria in the bioremediation of environments contaminated with azo dyes in the most diverse techniques and parameters, both in environmental and laboratory samples, also addressing their mechanisms and the legislation involving these dyes around the world, showcasing the importance of bacterial bioremediation, specialty in a scenario in an ever-increasing pursuit for sustainable production. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainability; effluent treatment; dyes; bioremediation; bacteria; wastewater; textile; consortium; BES; bioreactor sustainability; effluent treatment; dyes; bioremediation; bacteria; wastewater; textile; consortium; BES; bioreactor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pinheiro, L.R.S.; Gradíssimo, D.G.; Xavier, L.P.; Santos, A.V. Degradation of Azo Dyes: Bacterial Potential for Bioremediation. Sustainability 2022, 14, 1510. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031510

AMA Style

Pinheiro LRS, Gradíssimo DG, Xavier LP, Santos AV. Degradation of Azo Dyes: Bacterial Potential for Bioremediation. Sustainability. 2022; 14(3):1510. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031510

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pinheiro, Lucas Rafael Santana, Diana Gomes Gradíssimo, Luciana Pereira Xavier, and Agenor Valadares Santos. 2022. "Degradation of Azo Dyes: Bacterial Potential for Bioremediation" Sustainability 14, no. 3: 1510. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031510

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