The use of dyes dates to ancient times and has increased due to population and industrial growth, leading to the rise of synthetic dyes. These pollutants are of great environmental impact and azo dyes deserve special attention due their widespread use and challenging degradation. Among the biological solutions developed to mitigate this issue, bacteria are highlighted for being versatile organisms, which can be applied as single organism cultures, microbial consortia, in bioreactors, acting in the detoxification of azo dyes breakage by-products and have the potential to combine biodegradation with the production of products of economic interest. These characteristics go hand in hand with the ability of various strains to act under various chemical and physical parameters, such as a wide range of pH, salinity, and temperature, with good performance under industry, and environmental, relevant conditions. This review encompasses studies with promising results related to the use of bacteria in the bioremediation of environments contaminated with azo dyes in the most diverse techniques and parameters, both in environmental and laboratory samples, also addressing their mechanisms and the legislation involving these dyes around the world, showcasing the importance of bacterial bioremediation, specialty in a scenario in an ever-increasing pursuit for sustainable production.
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