WhatsApp as a University Tutoring Resource
2.1. University Tutoring
2.2. WhatsApp and University Tutoring
3. Related Work
4. Case Study
4.1. Materials and Methods
4.3. Variables and Instruments
- Generally, aiming to collect information on the academic, personal, and family difficulties that students faced which could negatively affect their development in the university environment; this was conducted before and after the experiment with the members of both the experimental and control groups.
- Specifically, oriented towards determining the perceptions of students concerning the use of WhatsApp as a virtual university tutoring resource; in this case, the interview was only applied after the experiment with the students of the experimental group.
5.1. WhatsApp and University Tutoring
5.2. Use of WhatsApp for Identification of and Reflection on Academic Problems
- Interest and motivation to study, for which the approach increased from 25% to 50%, indicating that this group of students could not find clear reasons to study and required accompaniment and the implementation of activities that promote autonomous and conscious learning.
- Vocational instruction and identification with a career, which went from being addressed by 14% of students to being adressed by 29% in the experimental group, demonstrating that using WhatsApp for tutoring can generate reflection in students and help them to strengthen these aspects. Several of the students’ answers are transcribed in Table 1.
5.3. WhatsApp in the Identification and Reflection on Personal Problems
- The limitations that students have in establishing personal goals and aspirations in a life project, where their approach increased by 54%, from 7% to 61%, showing the need that students have to share their difficulties through a medium that is easy and convenient to use, such as WhatsApp.
- Fifficulties in autonomy and decision making, a trait where treatment increased by 42%, from just 4% to 46%, showing students’ interest in addressing this issue and finding strategies that allow them to overcome it.
- The presence of continuous stress that leads students to an unstable and fragile emotional state. For this last trait, there was a difference of 39% between the input evaluation and the output evaluation, showing the need that students have to express the discomfort generated by various stressors. Several of the students’ comments are transcribed in Table 1.
5.4. WhatsApp in the Identification of and Reflection on Family Problems
- The identification of conflicts in family relationships, where treatment increased by 43%, from 14% before the treatment to 57% after the treatment. This evidences students’ need to share their family difficulties through a medium that provides confidence and makes them feel comfortable.
- With respect to the loss of a family member, the treatment of this trait increased by 25%, from 7% in the entrance evaluation to 32% in the exit evaluation. Several comments are transcribed in Table 1.
5.5. WhatsApp in Interactions between Tutors and Tutored
5.6. Statistical Tests
7. Conclusions and Future Work
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|E.14. I do things because I have to do them and that’s it; but I don’t do it with much enthusiasm, since I don’t know if it is what I want.|
E.16. I have a goal and that leads me to study and make an effort because I want to get ahead. That’s what you should do, classmates, identify your purposes and everything will be easier to understand.
|E.13. Teaching is not my forte; but I believe that the career I study can have other missions.|
E.23. The problem with vocation is that in the society in which we live it is not valued…it can be observed that an individual with influence is worth more than an individual with knowledge and vocation of service…this discourages.
in a life plan
|E.1. I have many projects and many goals; but I get discouraged when I see them disappear without being achieved…I believe that building a life project should begin in childhood, so that we don’t get lost along the way. |
E.20. Establishing a life project is a serious thing, I think I should formalize this aspect; but I am afraid of being disappointed when I see that my goals are very far away.
|E.16. Most of the time, I take my own…but it happens to me that sometimes I find a very difficult situation and I get paralyzed, that’s the problem (Emoji of an embarrassed and smiling face).|
E.17. I am afraid to make my own decisions, I always look for the approval of others before deciding something…
I am fearful and I always need someone to advise me.
|E.9. There are too many activities, I get headaches almost every day and I get desperate because I can’t accomplish all my tasks.|
E.5. Sometimes I fall into despair, especially when things do not go as I plan; but today I understood that we must take things calmly.
Thank you for the reflection.
|E.11. I feel that my parents do not understand me, they do not agree with me and then we argue a lot and that affects me.|
E.17. Everyone looks for their own personal wellbeing and we forget that we are a family…sometimes I feel alone.
|E.3. I think I will never accept it, it hurts too much to know that I will never hug her again (Emoji of sadness and crying).|
E.17. I never thought it could happen to me, I never thought about death and now I see it so close, I don’t like it, I don’t want it…
it took away almost all my will to live (Emoji of crying).
|Has this type of tutoring helped you to address your problems?||E.16. Not to overcome them, but to cope with them, to treat them as something normal that happens to many people and that I should not feel bad for having them.|
E.11. Some, others not; but at least it has made me feel accompanied. In addition, the strategies used were very reflective and made me feel that all human beings have problems and that they should not interfere in my development as a future professional.
E.23. It has helped me to recognize many weaknesses that I had and did not want to accept, the reflections that the teacher sent us were very interesting and made me think about how important it is to love and value myself.
|Why tell your problems or concerns via WhatsApp?||E.15. Since I formed the WhatsApp group, I felt comfortable with the tutoring system, it seemed to me something informal and it adapted to me; then I understood that within that informality there were clear objectives…I don’t feel comfortable talking to her looking at her face, I feel that she is going to criticize me, but through WhatsApp I feel freer. We use WhatsApp for almost all the courses and doing it for tutoring is something comfortable.|
E.8. Because I feel more like my friend through this medium, I can say things that I would not say in a direct conversation, face to face. …I was encouraged to tell her about my fears and my difficulties in putting together my life project.
E.1. Because I can do it when I feel the need to talk to someone, using WhatsApp helps me to find support when I need it. Previous semesters it was difficult to make an appointment with my tutor and if I had problems. I had to wait until that day to tell him about my difficulties; instead with WhatsApp it is easier to find help and feel that there is someone willing to listen to you.
|How did you feel interacting with your tutor through WhatsApp?||E.6. Super comfortable, in my tutor I found a friend, I had already worked the previous semester with her; we would set a date for the tutoring session and few times later we met again, our schedules did not coincide and we did not find the time to talk, it was a colder relationship; on the other hand, through WhatsApp it is better.|
E.14. I felt that she was a very special friend, whom I had to treat with respect, but with trust. The relationship became stronger because I could always contact her. At the beginning I was a little embarrassed to tell her something; but then I got used to it and it provoked me to tell her many things.
E.10. Comfortable, because I use WhatsApp for almost everything, so it was perfect that I also use it to contact and talk to my tutor.
|Levene’s Test for Equality|
|t-Test for Equality of Means||95% Confidence|
Interval of the Difference
|F||Sig.||t||gl||Sig. (Bilateral)||Mean Difference||Standard Error Difference||Lower||Upper|
|expac_||Equal variances are assumed||0.351||0.560||−1.377||20||0.184||−2.27273||1.64994||−5.71445||1.16899|
|before||Equal variances are not assumed||−1.377||18,838||0.185||−2.27273||1.64994||−5.72811||1.18265|
|Standardized test statistic||3.208|
|Asymptotic sig. (bilateral test)||0.001|
|Exact sig. (bilateral test)||0.001|
|1||The distribution of expfam_before is the same across VAR00013 categories.||Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples.||a||It cannot be calculated.|
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Gómez-Arteta, I.; Vera-Vasquez, C.G.; Mamani-Calcina, J.; Cardona-Reyes, H.; Villalba-Condori, K.O. WhatsApp as a University Tutoring Resource. Sustainability 2022, 14, 12304. https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912304
Gómez-Arteta I, Vera-Vasquez CG, Mamani-Calcina J, Cardona-Reyes H, Villalba-Condori KO. WhatsApp as a University Tutoring Resource. Sustainability. 2022; 14(19):12304. https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912304Chicago/Turabian Style
Gómez-Arteta, Indira, Cesar Gonzalo Vera-Vasquez, Jorge Mamani-Calcina, Héctor Cardona-Reyes, and Klinge Orlando Villalba-Condori. 2022. "WhatsApp as a University Tutoring Resource" Sustainability 14, no. 19: 12304. https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912304