# Sustainable Adaptive Cycle Pavements Using Composite Foam Concrete at High Altitudes in Central Europe

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

^{−2}for basalt reinforcing mesh. The research results, verified through FEM (Finite Element Method) models of cycle pavements, demonstrated a possible reduction of total pavement thickness from 56 to 38 cm for rigid pavements and 48 to 38 cm for flexible pavements.

## 1. Introduction

^{−3}), minimal aggregate consumption (significant saving in natural resources), controlled low strength (0.3 to 5 MPa), and excellent thermal and acoustic insulation properties (thermal conductivity of 0.058 to 0.26 W/m·K). Its specific characteristic is that it contains closed air pores that reduce its volumetric weight. FC allows also for the incorporation of recycled and secondary materials (demolition fines or conditioned fly ash).

## 2. Methods

- Statistical analyses of the evolution of relevant climatic characteristics of Central Europe between 1971 and 2020 for altitudes above 330 m a.s.l.;
- Determination of flexural strength of isomorphic models with foam concrete according to STN EN 12390-5:2020 Testing hardened concrete. Part 5: Flexural strength of test specimens [55];
- FEM models are used to validate the modeling methodology and to create a FEM model of the pavements of interest;
- Analytical models in Central European conditions binding for design of asphalt and cement concrete (CC) pavements with reinforces FC 500 base course.

#### 2.1. Territorial Definition of the Central European Area and the Range of Heights

#### 2.2. Basic Criteria for the Structural Pavement Design Assessment

- A. Road protection against the adverse effects of subsoil freezing;
- B. Ratio of flexure tensile strength and critical bending stress in asphalt or cement-bound pavements layers.

_{r}(m

^{2}·K·W

^{−1}) is equal to or greater than the necessary thermal resistance of the R

_{n}(m

^{2}·K·W

^{−1}) determined based on the requirement to not allow greater freezing of the soil in the subsoil than is allowed. The condition for n pavement construction layers with thickness h

_{i}(m) and thermal conductivity coefficient λ

_{i}(W·m

^{−1}·K

^{−1}) is expressed by the formula:

FI_{n} | frost index determined for the respective periodicity n | (°C) |

h_{pf} | permissible thickness of pavement freezing | (m) |

λ | thermal conductivity coefficient of subgrade soil. | (W·m^{−1}·K^{−1}) |

#### 2.3. Dependence of Climatic Characteristics of Central Europe on Altitude

- Average annual air temperature-design of concrete pavements;
- Frost index (FI)-design of asphalt and concrete pavements.

_{s}, which is calculated as:

_{a}(°C) is expressed by the following formula:

_{a}is determined from long-term measurements of air temperatures (Figure 3, selected meteorological stations in Slovakia), for pavement engineering purposes is used the average annual temperature map according to STN 73 6114 [59] or objectified research results.

_{a}were objectified for the SL above 300 m and individually evaluated time periods A (Figure 4):

- Average annual temperature 1971–2000;

- Average annual temperature 1971–2010;

- Average annual temperature 1971–2020;

_{n}(for different periodicity n of 0.10, 0.15, and 0.25) which were objectified for the SL above 300 m and individually evaluated time periods.

_{n}dependencies for all periodicities (n of 0.10, 0.15, 0.25), an average level of 98.4% of the RI values determined for the period 1971 to 2000 was obtained for the period 1971 to 2011 evaluated. This represents a 1.6% reduction in FI when considering the average values for the 40 years (1971–2011) and the 30 years from 1971 to 2000.

#### 2.4. Flexural Strength of Isomorphic Models of Foam Concrete FC 500 Construction Layer

^{®}Mesh (OM). In previous work by the authors [48,49,50], the possibility of using composite models of foam concrete with nonwoven PP (polypropylene) geotextile 200 g·m

^{−2}(Filtek); geogrid with nonwoven PP fibers 60 g·m

^{−2}, and PET (polyethylene terephthalate) mesh (Armatex); and geogrid made of stretched monolithic flat bars and filter geotextile (Combigrid) have been verified in situ and in the lab. The best result was obtained with the nonwoven polypropylene geotextile material, which was used for the applications reported in this paper.

^{−2}), higher tensile strength (1284 to 1458 MPa), better cohesion with concrete, lower thermal expansion (thermal coefficient of linear expansion of 6 to 10 × 10

^{−6}°C

^{−1}), fewer cracks in concrete, thermal and electrical insulator, as well as easy handling and installation. The composite mesh used consisted of bars in thickness of 3 mm in diameter and 100 × 100 mm mesh size, in 2 perpendicular directions connected by special material. The application of OM is also very advantageous in marine environments such as harbors, piers, and dikes and in structures that need electromagnetic neutrality such as hospitals. The measurements of foam concrete models were performed in-situ and were complemented by laboratory measurements of mechanical characteristics.

^{−2}, and FC 500 with GTX 200 with basalt mesh. The test specimen was a prism-shaped beam (100 × 100 × 400 mm) in accordance with STN EN 12390-5:2020 [61] and the set contained a total of 49 specimens. The flexural strength f

_{cf}of the test specimen was determined by applying a symmetrical two-point method of loading at a constant loading rate on a servo-controlled testing device [61]. As the specimens were subjected to bending, the maximum load was recorded once the tensile stresses exceeded the flexural strength of the FC and cracks started to occur when the bending moment was reached (Figure 6).

_{5/6}and design value of flexural strength 0.50 MPa which is standardly used in a base layer of pavements. A similar increase in flexural strength can be achieved by using fibers in foam concrete, which has been demonstrated by many measurements [27,34]. To determine the design values of the foam concrete characteristics, the lower limit of the mean value interval at a 95% confidence level was used as input data for the three-dimensional modeling of pavement with a layer of foam concrete.

^{−3}), which is often found in the territory of the Slovak Republic. The bearing capacity determined by a static load test was determined to be 15.0 MPa.

^{−2}corresponding to the design vehicle axle parameter with a mass of 10 tones. The achieved load-bearing capacity values expressed by the modulus of elasticity from the second loading cycle E

_{e}are shown in Table 2, from which the modulus of elasticity of the base layer from foam concrete (FC 500 and FC 500 + OM) was subsequently determined by back-calculation from the measured values of the equivalent modulus of elasticity on the surface of subgrade and the sub-base layer and known thicknesses (Table 2). Similar to the results of the laboratory measurements (Table 1), the in-situ measurements showed that reinforcing the foam concrete with basalt mesh will increase the modulus of elasticity of the foam concrete layer. The results obtained are comparable to the values found by [62,63] where for foam concrete densities of 500 to 1600 kg·m

^{−3}the values of the modulus of elasticity are in the range of 1 to 12 kN·mm

^{−2}.

## 3. Three-Dimensional Model of a Cycle Pavement with a Layer of FC Reinforced with a Basalt Mesh

^{2}is obtained by substituting the modulus of elasticity of the subgrade E = 30 MPa, the effective width of the contact area of the rigid elements with the elastic subgrade B = 0.96 m, and the Poisson number ν = 0.3 into relation (7).

## 4. Discussion

^{−3}in transport constructions [48,49,50] created credibility conditions for the design cycle pavements using composite foam concrete (CFC) with basalt mesh at high altitudes of CE. In the area of increasing the mechanical efficiency of the road, the increase in the tensile strength of CFC from 0.5 MPa to 1.3 MPa was objectified due to the use of a basalt reinforcement net. To provide credible design and assessment of such pavements through validated FEM models, they present the results of research on climatic characteristics for the period 1971–2020, according to the World Meteorological Organization, the weather trends for the last 30 years are assessed.

- Average annual temperature 1971–2000 8.34 °C (300 m) and 3.75 °C (1100 m);
- Average annual temperature 1971–2010 8.49 °C (300 m) and 3.86 °C (1100 m);
- Average annual temperature 1971–2020 8.75 °C (300 m) and 4.03 °C (1100 m).

- Average value of the frost index in the period 1971–2000 for:
- n = 0.10
- 392.8 (300 m) and 839.5 (1100 m);
- n = 0.15
- 348.2 (300 m) and 762.6 (1100 m);
- n = 0.25
- 305.6 (300 m) and 668.7 (1100 m);

- Average value of the frost index in the period 1971–2011 for:
- n = 0.10
- 384.5 (300 m) and 839.4 (1100 m);
- n = 0.15
- 335.0 (300 m) and 750.0 (1100 m);
- n = 0.25
- 305.5 (300 m) and 664.8 (1100 m).

## 5. Conclusions

^{−3}[33,63]. To use in the base layers of road structures, the need to increase its tensile strength in bending was identified [27,62]. The authors have been intensively addressing these research issues for the last 10 years [48,49] and in this article, they present the application of composite concrete with a bulk density of 500 kg·m

^{−3}, reinforced with a basalt mesh [50].

_{a}and the frost index (FI). For CE altitudes from 300 to 1100 m and the evaluated period 1971–2020, the temperature range is 8.8 to 4.0 °C. To illustrate the significant effect of T

_{a}on thermal stresses (TS) of cement concrete plates, we give corresponding numerical values for its thickness of 20 cm and dimensions of CC plates 4 × 4 m for temperatures T

_{a}= 4.5 and 11.5 °C and modulus of reaction k [57]:

- k = 100 MN·m
^{−3}
| TS_{4.5} = 2.26 MPa | TS_{11.5} = 1.64 MPa; |

- k = 200 MN·m
^{−3}
| TS_{4.5} = 2.63 MPa | TS_{11.5} = 1.91 MPa; |

- k = 300 MN·m
^{−3}
| TS_{4.5} = 2.72 MPa | TS_{11.5} = 1.92 MPa. |

^{−3}(FC 500) with the use of geotextile (GTX) and reinforcing basalt Orlitech mesh (OM), the following average flexural strengths were objectified: FC 500 = 0.38 MPa, FC 500 + GTX = 0.52 MPa, FC 500 + GTX + OM = 1.37 MPa.

_{5/6}, C

_{8/10}, and C

_{12/15}, which have design values of flexural strength of 0.50, 0.80, and 1.00 MPa [59].

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 2.**(

**a**) The red dots on the map [56] indicate some of the cities contending for the title Center of Europe: Dilove (Rakhiv, Ukraine), Krahule (or Kremnicke Bane, Slovakia), Dresden and Kleinmaischeid (Germany), Torun and Suchowola (Poland), Bernotai, or Purnuskes (Lithuania), (

**b**) the highest and lowest permanently inhabited municipalities, or places with the lowest altitude of the countries under consideration.

**Figure 3.**Correlation dependencies of the evolution of annual average temperatures for altitudes 314, 365, 695, 830, and 858 m a.s.l. for the period 1971 to 2020.

**Figure 4.**Dependence of the average annual air temperature of Central Europe for the period 1971–2000, 1971–2010, and 1971–2020 exceeding 300 m above sea level.

**Figure 5.**Objectified correlation dependences of the Slovak design values of the frost index FI

_{n}for the periodicity 0.10, 0.15, 0.25 on the altitude SL for the period 1971 to 2000 and 1971 to 2011.

**Figure 6.**Test samples and examples of record of the test; (

**a**) foam concrete FC 500, (

**b**) foam concrete FC 500 + GTX 200, and (

**c**) foam concrete FC 500 + GTX 200 + OM.

**Figure 10.**Finite elements used in modeling and the process of creating a 3D model; (

**A1**)—definition of basic points of model shape; (

**A2**)—connecting basic points using lines and curves (thread model simplified); (

**A3**)—dividing lines and curves (setting boundaries for elements); (

**A4**)—definition which lines creates boundaries for element meshing procedure (surface mesh); (

**A5**)—meshing of defined surfaces with 2D element types (not assigned width); (

**A6**)—from defined surface boundaries creating of volume element mesh (or other advanced methods can be used); (

**B1**)—real dimension of element used for pavement layer; (

**B2**)—hexahedron type of volume element used for model; (

**B3**)—type of polynomic interpolation for used element; (

**B4**)—mathematical expression of approximation function for FEM solution; (

**B5**)—number of element nodes for solving of displacement (define the difficulty of computation).

**Figure 11.**Skin stress and strain on the FEM model, (

**a**) maximum normal stresses on the model σ

_{x}, (

**b**) maximum normal stresses σ

_{x}on the 3D foam concrete solid, (

**c**) maximum displacement from the 2P load.

Density Average Value (kg·m^{−3}) | Flexural Strength (N·mm^{−2}) | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Average Value | Standard Dev. | Student’s Distribution t _{0.05} | Design Value | ||

FC 500 | 522 | 0.376 | 0.055 | 2.080 | 0.36 |

FC 500 + GTX 200 | 516 | 0.521 | 0.086 | 2.069 | 0.48 |

FC 500 + GTX 200 + OM | 525 | 1.370 | 0.165 | 4.303 | 0.96 |

Modulus of Elasticity (MPa) | |||
---|---|---|---|

Isomorphic Model | Sub-Base | Equivalent Modulus E_{e} | Back-Calculation E |

FC 500 + GTX 200 | 19.6 | 82.50 | 1412.5 |

33.3 | 130.75 | 2062.5 | |

FC 500 + GTX 200 + OM | 19.6 | 107.75 | 3675.0 |

33.3 | 155.00 | 3575.0 |

Cycle Pavement Construction | Thickness | Modulus of Elasticity | Poisson’s Ratio | Flexural Tensile Strength | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

(mm) | (MPa) | (MPa) | (MPa) | |||||||

0 °C | 11 °C | 27 °C | 0 °C | 11 °C | 27 °C | 0 °C | 11 °C | 27 °C | ||

Single-layer cement concrete pavement CC III; PE (polyethylene) geotextile | 180 | 35.10^{3} | 0.2 | 4.0 | ||||||

Foam concrete with reinforcing mesh FC 500 + OM, base layer | 100 | 1800 | 0.23 | 1.0 | ||||||

Gravel crushed stone Unbound gravel materials (UGM), sub-base layer | 150 | 350 | 0.3 | - |

Numerical Results-Stresses (Obtained by Different Methods) | Model of Cycle Pavement 3 | Single Load |
---|---|---|

Westergaard | (WEST) | 3.113 MPa |

Pickett and Ray | (PICRA) | 3.298 MPa |

Elastic multilayered half-space | (LAYMED) | 2.965 MPa |

Finite element method | (FEM) | 2.583 MPa |

Thermal Stresses | (THERM) | 1.083 MPa |

Criterial Limit value according to standard TP 098 | CC III | 4.0 MPa |

Pavement Construction Layer | Pavement 1 | Pavement 2 | Pavement 3 | Pavement 4 | Pavement 5 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Cement concrete for surface CC III; EN 13877 | 190 | 190 | 180 | - | - |

Asphalt concrete for base course AC 11; EN 13108-1 | 40 | - | - | - | - |

Asphalt concrete for wearing course AC 8; EN 13108-1 | - | - | - | 30 | 30 |

Asphalt concrete for binder course AC 16; EN 13108-1 | - | - | - | 50 | 50 |

Asphalt concrete for road base AC 16; EN 13108-1 | - | - | - | 50 | 50 |

Cement bound granular mixture CBGM C _{5/6}; EN 14227-1 | 150 | - | - | 150 | - |

Foam concrete + reinforcing basalt mesh FC 500 + OM | - | - | 100 | - | 100 |

Unbound mixtures (UM) for sub-base layer UM 0/31.5; EN 13285 | - | 180 | - | - | - |

Unbound mixtures (UM), for sub-base layer UM 0/31.5; EN 13285 | 180 | 180 | 150 | 200 | 150 |

Elasticity modulus of subgrade E (MPa) | min. 30 | ||||

Pavement service life (years) | min. 30 | ||||

Total pavement thickness (mm) | 560 | 550 | 430 | 480 | 380 |

The required thermal resistance of the pavement (m^{2}·K·W^{−1}) | 0.260 for altitude 300 m according to TP 098 [58] 0.412 for altitude 1100 m according to TP 098 [58] | ||||

The real thermal resistance of the pavement (m^{2}·K·W^{−1}) | 0.263 | 0.285 | 0.650 | 0.286 | 0.676 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Decky, M.; Hodasova, K.; Papanova, Z.; Remisova, E.
Sustainable Adaptive Cycle Pavements Using Composite Foam Concrete at High Altitudes in Central Europe. *Sustainability* **2022**, *14*, 9034.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159034

**AMA Style**

Decky M, Hodasova K, Papanova Z, Remisova E.
Sustainable Adaptive Cycle Pavements Using Composite Foam Concrete at High Altitudes in Central Europe. *Sustainability*. 2022; 14(15):9034.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159034

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Decky, Martin, Katarina Hodasova, Zuzana Papanova, and Eva Remisova.
2022. "Sustainable Adaptive Cycle Pavements Using Composite Foam Concrete at High Altitudes in Central Europe" *Sustainability* 14, no. 15: 9034.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159034