Heat Stress Adaptation within Informal, Low-Income Urban Settlements in Africa
3.1. Intra-Urban Inequality in Heat Exposure: A Challenge in Low-Income Informal Urban Communities
3.2. Experiences and Perceptions of (Increasing) Thermal Discomfort and Heat Stress
3.3. Drivers for Increased Thermal Discomfort and Heat Stress
3.4. Heat-Related Health Challenges and Associated Health-Seeking Responses
3.5. Behavioural Responses to Heat Stress and Thermal Discomfort within Residential Settings
- Fans—electric and manual (hand-held) fans of various types promoting heat loss through convection and evaporation. Misting fans emitting high-pressure water spray can enhance evaporative heat loss from the skin without additional sweating;
- Self-dousing—water/ice/moisture applied to the skin (e.g., with a spray bottle, napkin, or sponge); draping damp chilled towels or donning wet clothing;
- Foot immersion—immersing feet to above the ankles in cold water;
- Clothing—light-coloured clothing or protective equipment, smaller clothing, vents in clothing, etc.;
- Hydration—ingesting cold fluids;
- Activity planning—reduced outdoor activities or those during sunny hours of the day;
- Sleep location—sleeping outdoors, sleeping in less exposed rooms/areas, etc.;
- Operating building components—opening doors, windows, or curtains.
3.6. Building-Related Heat-Resistant Measures
3.7. Greening Strategies to Address Heat Stress in Informal Settlements
3.8. Policy Directions and Gaps
Heat Stress and Urban Informality within Climate Policy
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Building Measure||Micro-Climate Benefit (Temperature Difference)||Nature of Study||Study Location||Reference|
|Louvre or sliding window openings||Louvre windows offer improved ventilation and indoor temperature reduction, notably in the dry season (November to April), with ≤26 °C and ≥33 °C recorded.||Field measurement||Ile-Ife, Nigeria|||
|Vertical green structures on walls||Plants on outer walls reduce indoor temperatures by 2.3 °C on average, moving internal comfort conditions to around 90–100% of the time daily.||Experimentation, with field measurement||Lagos, Nigeria|||
|Shading devices (such as verandas)||These can reduce the frequency of indoor thermal discomfort by 8.5–19.5%.||Validated simulation||Abuja, Nigeria|||
|Building orientation and external shading (fins, overhang, etc.)||Adjusting room orientation can lead to a 4–6% reduction in thermal discomfort.|
External shading components can offer a 4% reduction in thermal discomfort.
|Validated simulation||Abuja, Nigeria|||
|Retrofit—roof insulation, fins + overhang)||These specific measures can reduce operative temperature up to 3 °C.||Simulation||Lagos, Nigeria|||
|Retrofit (ceiling insulation, energy-efficient lighting, tree planting, etc.)||The retrofitted houses experienced a general decrease in indoor temperature (up to 4 °C) in the hottest hours.||Experimentation and field measurement||Durban, South Africa|||
|Outer wall paintings (cool coatings)||Painted spaces had up to a 4.3 °C reduction in temperature.||Experimentation and field measurement||Johannesburg, South Africa|||
|Retrofit—building envelope||Such measures lead to an increase in indoor thermal comfort hours by about 40%.||Simulation||Nairobi, Kenya|||
|Passive eco-cooling with clay funnels (wall openings)||This strategy leads to average reductions in indoor temperature and humidity by 2 °C and 15%, respectively.||On-site experimentation||Greater Cairo, Egypt|||
|Rooftop farming||Such measures decrease direct heat gain on rooftops (no quantification provided).||On-site implementation||Greater Cairo, Egypt||[54,55]|
|Street shading||Temporary and permanent lightweight structures reduce outdoor temperatures (no quantification provided).||On-site implementation||Greater Cairo, Egypt|||
|Green Wall (living façade skin system)||This offers improved shading of walls and evapotranspiration and air quality.||On-site implementation (2016–2018)||Greater Cairo, Egypt|||
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Laue, F.; Adegun, O.B.; Ley, A. Heat Stress Adaptation within Informal, Low-Income Urban Settlements in Africa. Sustainability 2022, 14, 8182. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14138182
Laue F, Adegun OB, Ley A. Heat Stress Adaptation within Informal, Low-Income Urban Settlements in Africa. Sustainability. 2022; 14(13):8182. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14138182Chicago/Turabian Style
Laue, Franziska, Olumuyiwa Bayode Adegun, and Astrid Ley. 2022. "Heat Stress Adaptation within Informal, Low-Income Urban Settlements in Africa" Sustainability 14, no. 13: 8182. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14138182