How Do Corporate Social Responsibility Engagements Drive Consumer–Company Identification in Singapore?
2. Literature Review and Research Hypotheses
2.1. Theoretical Underpinning
2.2. A Typology of Corporate Social Responsibility Practices
2.3. Consumer–Company Identification
2.4. Social Identity Theory to Link CSR and CCI
2.5. Hypotheses Development
3.2. Survey Design
3.4. Validity Test of the Measures
4.1. Descriptive Statistics
4.2. Hypotheses Testing
6. Conclusions, Implications and Limitations
6.1. Theoretical Implications
6.2. Practical Implications
6.3. Limitations and Future Research Direction
Institutional Review Board Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|Strongly Agree||Agree||Neither Agree nor Sisagree||Disagree||Strongly Disagree|
|LSR1: This company engages in philanthropy contributing to causes such as the arts, education and social services in Singapore.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|LSR2: This company plays a role in the local community beyond generating economic benefits in Singapore.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|ECSR1: This company adopts good practices in the use, purchase and production of environment-friendly products.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|ECSR2: This company is concerned with respecting and protecting the natural environment.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|BCSR1: This company supports fair-trade practices globally.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|BCSR2: This company employs women, minorities and disabled persons globally and adopts good employment practices.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|BCSR3: This company is concerned with improving the general well-being of global society.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|Strongly Agree||Agree||Neither Agree nor Disagree||Disagree||Strongly Disagree|
|CCI1: I share a similar identity with this company.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|CCI2: This company fits my personality.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|CCI3: I feel good being a customer of this company||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|CCI4: I like saying that I am a customer of this company||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|CCI5: I feel closely linked to this company||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|Strongly Agree||Agree||Neither Agree nor Disagree||Disagree||Strongly Disagree|
|PI1: I consider this company as my first choice to buy products or services.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|PI2: I will buy most relevant products or services from this company.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|PI3: I am more willing to try the new products and services launched by this company.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|CA1: I believe this company is financially strong.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|CA2: I believe this company has good management||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|CA3: I believe this company makes quality and innovative products||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|Strongly Agree||Agree||Neither Agree nor Disagree||Disagree||Strongly Disagree|
|EGO1: Social power; I like to have control over others, dominance is important to me.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|EGO2: Wealth; material possessions and money is important to me.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|EGO3: Authority; the right to lead or command is important to me.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|EG04: Influential; having an impact on people and events are important to me.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|BV1: Preventing pollution; conserving natural resources is important to me.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|BV2: Respecting the earth; harmony with other species is important to me.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|BV3: Unity with nature; harmonizing with nature is important to me.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|BV4: Protecting the environment, preserving nature is important to me.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|AV1: Equality; equal opportunity for all people is important to me.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|AV2: The world at peace; freedom from war and conflict is important to me.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|AV3: Social justice; correcting injustices and caring for the weak is important to me.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|AV4: Helpful; working for the welfare of others is important to me.||⑤||④||③||②||①|
|18–25 Years||26–30 Years||31–35 Years||36–40 Years||Above 40 Years|
|Below High School||High School||Bachelor||Master or Above|
|Full-Time Employed||Part-Time Employed||Seeking Work||Retired||Home Duties||Student||Others|
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|Local-community-focused CSR||“Dear valued customers, we deeply regret to inform that due to recent virus transmission, Haidilao Singapore has decided to suspend the operation of children playground and manicure service temporarily from 28 January 2020. We will announce the availability when the operation resume. We thank you for your continuous support and sincerely apologise for any inconvenience caused.”|
|“While ensuring steady operation, we genuinely appreciate everyone who has supported us and never forgot our original aspiration. We actively fulfil our corporate social responsibilities, encourage our employees to participate in charity and volunteer work, contributing to local communities. https://www.haidilao.com/sg/gyhdl/shzr/index.html” (accessed on 12 February 2021)|
|Environment-focused CSR||“In support of Earth Hour, our stores will be turning exterior lights off for an hour tonight at 8.30 pm.”|
|“1.4 billion re-sealable plastic bags make a difference, helping us to reduce our carbon footprint.”|
|Broader humanity-focused CSR||“Recently, we have received some enquiries on whether any preventive measures have been taken to protect the health and safety of our customers and employees. Below are the measures that we have been practising: …”|
|“Here at McDonald’s, it’s an absolute joy and delight to bring a smile on a customer’s face. Here’s one* of many heartfelt letters we receive from customers that inspires us to continue serving with hospitality from our hearts. Ultimately, making McDonald’s a “Happy Place” for everyone is what makes our day.”|
|Company||Frequency||Environment-Focused CSR Post||Local-Community-Focused CSR Post||Broader Humanity-Focused CSR Post|
|Characteristic||Classification||Frequency (Number)||Percentage (%)|
|Education||Below bachelor’s degree||40||18.4|
|At least bachelor’s degree||177||81.6|
|Working situation||Full-time employed||119||54.8|
(excluding housing cost, SGD)
|Variable||Item||Corrected Item-Total Correlation||Cronbach’s Alpha||Composite Reliability||AVE|
|EGO1: Social power; I like to have control over others, dominance is important to me.|
EGO2: Wealth; material possessions and money is important to me.
EGO3: Authority; the right to lead or command is important to me.
EGO4: Influential; having an impact on people and events are important to me.
|Biospheric Values||BV1: Preventing pollution; conserving natural resources is important to me.|
BV2: Respecting the earth; harmony with other species is important to me.
BV3: Unity with nature; harmonising with nature is important to me.
BV4: Protecting the environment; preserving nature is important to me.
|AV1: Equality; equal opportunity for all people is important to me.|
AV2: The world at peace; freedom from war and conflict is important to me.
AV3: Social justice; correcting injustices and caring for the weak is important to
AV4: Helpful; working for the welfare of others is important to me.
|LSR1: This company engages in philanthropy contributing to causes such as the |
arts, education and social services in Singapore.
LSR2: This company plays a role in the local community beyond generating economic benefits in Singapore.
|Environment-focused CSR||ECSR1: This company adopts good practices in the use, purchase and production|
Of environmentally friendly products.
ECSR2: This company is concerned with respecting and protecting the natural environment.
|BCSR1: This company supports fair-trade practices globally.|
BCSR2: This company employs women, minorities and disabled persons globally
and adopts good employment practices.
BCSR3: This company is concerned with improving the general well-being of global society.
|CCI||CCI1: I share a similar identitywith this company.|
CCI2: This company fits my personality.
CCI3: I feel good being a customer of this company.
CCI4: I like saying that I am a customer of this company.
CCI5: I feel closely linked to this company.
|PI1: I consider this company as my first choice to buy products or services.|
PI2: I will buy most relevant products or services from this company.
PI3: I am more willing to try new products and services launched by this
|CA1: I believe this company is financially strong.|
CA2: I believe this company has good management.
CA3: I believe this company makes quality and innovative products.
|Company||N||PI||CCI||Perceived Overall CSR||ECSR Perception||LCSR Perception||BCSR Perception||Egoistic||Biospheric||Altruistic|
|Variables||Model 1||Model 2||Model 3||Model 4|
|1a: CCI||1b: PI||2a: CCI||2b: PI||3a: CCI||3b: PI||4a: CCI||4b: PI|
|Age||0.125 * (0.059)||0.097 (0.060)||0.117 + (0.060)||0.036 (0.063)||0.100 + (0.058)||0.030 (0.054)||0.115 + (0.064)||0.026 (0.053)|
|Egoistic||0.200 ** (0.061)||0.121 (0.070)||0.165 ** (0.058)||−0.006 (0.057)||0.181 * (0.057)||0.012 (0.054)||0.218 ** (0.060)||0.017 (0.054)|
|Biospheric||0.002 (0.063)||−0.003 (0.065)||0.005 (0.064)||−0.027 (0.061)||0.056 (0.059)||−0.003 (0.063)||0.007 (0.063)||0.004 (0.059)|
|Altruistic||0.075 (0.057)||0.038 (0.062)||0.081 (0.057)||0.007 (0.050)||0.081 (0.057)||−0.008 (0.053)||0.061 (0.059)||−0.010 (0.048)|
|LCSR||−0.020 (0.069)||0.020 (0.068)||−0.080 (0.069)||0.033 (0.055)||0.028 (0.067)||0.030 (0.064)||−0.022 (0.069)||0.033 (0.063)|
|ECSR||0.326 *** (0.066)||0.130 * (0.065)||0.332 *** (0.060)||−0.047 (0.063)||0.244 *** (0.064)||−0.060 (0.065)||0.322 *** (0.063)||−0.061 (0.067)|
|BCSR||0.081 (0.073)||0.031 (0.077)||0.132 (0.079)||−0.008 (0.062)||0.118 (0.075)||−0.015 (0.062)||0.109 (0.072)||−0.017 (0.068)|
|Company ability||0.418 *** (0.068)||0.552 *** (0.060)||0.427 *** (0.069)||0.354 *** (0.061)||0.384 *** (0.066)||0.289 *** (0.055)||0.419 *** (0.065)||0.295 *** (0.057)|
|Egoistic * LCSR (H1)||0.151 * (0.045)|
|Biospheric * LCSR (H1)||−0.088+ (0.054)|
|Altruistic * LCSR (H1)||−0.054(0.062)|
|Egoistic * ECSR (H2)||−0.089(0.061)|
|Biospheric * ECSR (H2)||0.162 ** (0.057)|
|Altruistic * ECSR (H2)||−0.110 + (0.052)|
|Egoistic * BCSR (H3)||0.094 + (0.054)|
|Biospheric * BCSR (H3)||−0.037 (0.051)|
|Altruistic * BCSR (H3)||−0.035 (0.063)|
|CCI (H4)||0.589 *** (0.061)||0.532 *** (0.060)||0.591 *** (0.064)||0.582 *** (0.063)|
|SRMR for saturated model||0.065||0.066||0.065||0.065|
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Kuah, A.T.H.; Xia, Y.; Wang, P. How Do Corporate Social Responsibility Engagements Drive Consumer–Company Identification in Singapore? Sustainability 2022, 14, 6080. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106080
Kuah ATH, Xia Y, Wang P. How Do Corporate Social Responsibility Engagements Drive Consumer–Company Identification in Singapore? Sustainability. 2022; 14(10):6080. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106080Chicago/Turabian Style
Kuah, Adrian T. H., Yi Xia, and Pengji Wang. 2022. "How Do Corporate Social Responsibility Engagements Drive Consumer–Company Identification in Singapore?" Sustainability 14, no. 10: 6080. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106080