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Investigating the Linkage between Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability in India: Do Agriculture and Trade Openness Matter?

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Economics Department, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Science, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli 41380, Turkey
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Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Science, Cyprus International University, Nicosia 99258, Turkey
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Department of Marketing and Advertising, Ali RızaVeziroğlu Vocational School, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli 41780, Turkey
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Department of Banking and Finance, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, European University of Lefke, Lefke 99010, Turkey
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Julio Berbel
Sustainability 2021, 13(9), 4753; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094753
Received: 21 March 2021 / Revised: 17 April 2021 / Accepted: 19 April 2021 / Published: 23 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Sustainability and Applications)
This paper assesses the linkage between CO2 emissions and economic growth while taking into account the role of energy consumption, agriculture, and trade openness in India. Using data covering the period between 1965 and 2019, the Bayer and Hanck cointegration and Gradual shift causality tests are applied to assess these economic indicators relationships’. Furthermore, we employed the wavelet coherence test. The advantage of the wavelet coherence test is that it differentiates between short-, medium-, and long-run dynamics over the entire sampling period. To the best of the authors’ understanding, the present paper is the first to apply wavelet analysis to investigate this relationship by incorporating agriculture as a determinant of environmental degradation. The empirical outcomes show that all variables appear to be highly correlated with CO2 emissions with the exemption of trade openness. This is further affirmed by the Gradual shift causality test, which shows that agriculture and energy consumption are crucial determinants of CO2 emissions in India. Accordingly, adequate policy measures are proposed based on these findings. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental sustainability; agriculture; economic growth; trade openness; energy consumption; India environmental sustainability; agriculture; economic growth; trade openness; energy consumption; India
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MDPI and ACS Style

Orhan, A.; Adebayo, T.S.; Genç, S.Y.; Kirikkaleli, D. Investigating the Linkage between Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability in India: Do Agriculture and Trade Openness Matter? Sustainability 2021, 13, 4753. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094753

AMA Style

Orhan A, Adebayo TS, Genç SY, Kirikkaleli D. Investigating the Linkage between Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability in India: Do Agriculture and Trade Openness Matter? Sustainability. 2021; 13(9):4753. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094753

Chicago/Turabian Style

Orhan, Ayhan; Adebayo, Tomiwa S.; Genç, Sema Y.; Kirikkaleli, Dervis. 2021. "Investigating the Linkage between Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability in India: Do Agriculture and Trade Openness Matter?" Sustainability 13, no. 9: 4753. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094753

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