2. Theoretical Background
2.1. Intention to Reduce Food Waste
2.2. Routines of Food Purchase Planning
2.3. Routines of Food Purchase on Sale
2.4. Knowledge of Labeling
2.5. Management Routines of Leftovers or Uneaten Food
2.6. Activities to Avoid Food Waste
2.7. The Economic Value of Food Waste
3.2. Sample Collection
3.3. Data Analysis
4.1. Sociodemographic Characteristics of the Respondents
4.2. Descriptive Results
4.3. Testing of Hypotheses
routines − 0.975 Routines for planning the purchase of food on sale − 0.496 Knowledge of labeling + 2.328
Routines for handling leftovers and uneaten food − 0.254 Activities to avoid food waste
- According to what was established for H1, the intention to reduce food waste in households is positively related to reducing the economic value of their waste. It was verified that the connection between these variables is positive (β = 0.822), with a significance of 0.000, confirming the hypothesis that with a greater intention to reduce wastage, the economic value of the waste decreases.
- The planning of purchases is related to less food waste and, consequently, to the reduction in the economic value of waste. As a matter of fact, a hypothesis on the use of a shopping list as a planning element was raised (H2). It was found that the connection between these variables is negative (β = −0.338), with a significance of 0.418; consequently, there are no sufficient elements to confirm the hypothesis that the use of a shopping list will reduce the economic value of food waste.
- The purchase of food on sale will reduce the economic value of waste if buying in a sale reduces food spending (H3). It was found that the connection between these variables is negative (β = −0.975), and the significance was 0.039, which confirms an inverse relationship between the variables to the hypothesis that purchasing food on sale contributes to the reduction in the economic value of waste.
- Knowledge of labeling is essential for proper handling of purchased products and can contribute to reducing the value of waste (H4). It was found that the connection between these variables is negative (β = −1.343), with a significance of 0.180, not confirming the hypothesis that knowledge of the labeling of the food can contribute to reducing the value of waste.
- The management of leftover or uneaten food is connected to better handling of uneaten food, whether due to overcooking or inappropriate storage, and will reduce its economic value (H5). It was found that the connection between these variables was positive (β = 2.328), with a significance of 0.000, which confirms the hypothesis that in households where waste is prevented, the economic value of waste is reduced.
- Activities to avoid food waste led to waste prevention and reduced its economic value (H6). In this sense, the connection between these variables is negative (β = −0.254), with a significance of 0.710, not confirming the hypothesis that activities to avoid food waste will reduce its economic value.
5.1. Analysis of Sociodemographic Results
5.2. Analysis of the Hypothesis
- The planning of the purchase (H2) is related to less food waste and, consequently, to the reduction in the economic value of waste. The hypothesis on the use of a shopping list as a planning element (H2) was not confirmed. This result is contrary to those reported by Principato , Stancu et al. , and Geffen et al. , who found a positive relationship between the use of a shopping list and the reduction in the economic value of waste. A more detailed study of the activities involved in purchasing planning would be necessary to verify the present finding, which could be motivated by the nonverification of stocks or poor planning of the menus, as well as the context of the crisis for the pandemic.
- The purchase of food on sale (H3) will reduce the economic value of waste if buying for sale reduces food spending. The hypothesis that purchasing food on sale contributes to the reduction in the economic value of waste was partially confirmed. This is due to food being worthless and aligned with changes in purchasing during times of crisis and uncertainty when seeking to make savings [36,37,51,58]. However, it is important to note that buying food on sale may lead to buying more, especially during pandemics.
- Knowledge of labeling (H4) is essential for proper handling of purchased products and can contribute to reducing the value of waste if the information on the labels is considered during the selection and purchase of products. Nevertheless, the hypothesis that knowledge of the labeling of the food can contribute to reducing the value of waste was not confirmed. This finding contrasts with those reported by Jribi et al. , Zainal and Hassan , Neff et al. [29,55] and Veríssimo et al. .
- The management of leftover or uneaten food (H5) is connected to better handling of uneaten food, whether due to excessive preparation, overcooking, cook or serve in large portions or inappropriate storage, and will reduce its economic value. The hypothesis that in households where waste is prevented, the economic value of waste is reduced was confirmed and these findings resonate with previous studies [21,29].
- Activities to avoid food waste (H6) lead to waste prevention and reduce its economic value. This hypothesis was not confirmed. Contrary to what has been reported in the literature, where it is verified that food waste is related to consumer behavior [33,46,47], aspects such as concern and action [11,15,20,21,28] can verify whether people are really taking appropriate actions to prevent or reduce their waste. The results obtained may be associated with the contexts of the study—i.e., the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Intention of reducing food waste|
In your opinion, what do you need to start reducing food waste in your home? Answer options:
|Routines of food purchase planning|
When you buy your food, do you? do you use a shopping list? Answer options:
|Routines of food purchase on sale|
You buy special offers of: Answer options:
|Knowledge of labeling|
Regarding the food you eat, you consider that: Answer options:
|Management routines of leftovers or uneaten food|
During the quarantine period, what did you do with the food you did not eat during meals? Or what did you do with the leftover meals? Indicate the most frequent action: Answer options:
|Activities to avoid food waste|
During the quarantine period, what did you do with the food you did not eat during meals? Or what did you do with the leftovers from your meals? Indicate the most frequent action: Answer options:
|Economic value of waste|
During the quarantine period, indicate how much you estimate the value of food waste in your home, weekly: Answer options:
|Sociodemographic characteristics of respondents.|
Age, gender, marital status, education, current occupation, family income average, and for how many people the respondent buy food.
|Characteristics||% of Responses|
|Age||20–30 years old||16.8|
|31–40 years old||24.0|
|41–50 years old||22.3|
|51–60 years old||25.5|
|>60 years old||11.4|
|Title 1||Title 3||Title 4|
|Who do you live with?||Alone||14.0|
|You buy food for…||For 8 persons or more||0.7|
|For 6–7 persons||1.3|
|Only for me||13.8|
|For 4–5 persons||24.9|
|For 2–3 persons||59.4|
|Retired or pensioner||15.1|
|Freelance or self-employed professional||16.2|
|Family income average||>BRL 23,850||3.7|
|Model: Dependent Variable = Economic Value of Waste||Coefficient β *||Beta Coefficient **||Statistic t||Sig||Hypothesis|
|Intention to reduce food waste||0.822||0.802||36.030||0.000 *||H1|
|Food purchase planning routines||−0.338||−0.015||−0.810||0.418||H2|
|Routines for planning the purchase of food on sale||−0.975||−0.038||−2.075||0.039 *||H3|
|Knowledge of labeling||−0.496||−0.025||−1.343||0.180||H4|
|Routines for handling leftovers and uneaten food||2.328||−0.007||8.273||0.000 *||H5|
|Activities to avoid food waste||−0.254||0.184||−0.372||0.710||H6|
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