Renewable Energy Perspectives of Pakistan and Turkey: Current Analysis and Policy Recommendations
2. Advantages of Renewable Energy
2.1. Environmental Benefits
2.2. Economic Benefits
2.3. Renewable Nature of Renewable Energy
2.4. Reliable Source of Energy
2.5. Reduction in the Cost of Renewable Energy Technologies
3. Reliance on Fossil Fuels
3.1. Turkey’s Reliance
3.2. Pakistan’s Reliance
4. Renewable Energy Development
4.1. Hydro Power Plant in Pakistan
4.2. Small Hydropower Projects
4.3. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Technology
4.4. Biomass Plants in Pakistan
4.5. Wind Power Plants in Pakistan
4.6. Geothermal Energy in Pakistan
4.7. Hydro Power in Turkey
4.8. Solar Power in Turkey
4.9. Biomass Power in Turkey
4.10. Wind Power in Turkey
4.11. Geothermal Power in Turkey
5. Comparative Analyses
5.1. Pakistan’s Scenario
5.1.1. Power Sector of Pakistan
5.1.2. Energy Supply and Demand
5.1.3. Renewable Energy Scenario in Pakistan
5.1.4. Power Generation Policy
5.1.5. Energy Potential of Pakistan
5.2. Turkey’s Scenario
5.2.1. Turkey’s Economy
5.2.2. Turkey Energy Policy
Wind Power Energy
6. Energy Policy Recommendation
- Establish a policy to reduce losses in the energy sector by introducing advanced technologies and solutions.
- Establish a policy to create a bridge among the stakeholders (e.g., government, the private sector and development partners) to advance renewable energy infrastructure in the country.
- Accelerate support and grants for research & development in education sector and research centers.
- Pakistan’s national interests and security could be at stake because of dependence on fossil fuels, which are vulnerable to political instabilities, trade disputes and wars; thus, renewable energy development becomes more crucial for the country. Therefore, efforts and policy for a systematic shift towards major dependence on renewable energy technologies should be carried out.
- Policies on the effective use of renewable energy setups need to be furnished in order to reduce greenhouse gases (produced through the energy production processes of fossil fuels, causing climate change and emitting pollutants).
- Establish a policy to launch new feasible projects for renewable energy generation; for example, speed breaker-based electricity generation, corporate energy generation, E-Plants, biogas plants, oceanic and geothermal energy projects, and other small- and large-scale innovative projects.
- Establish a policy to provide subsidy to the private sector and development partners for renewable energy plant installation.
- Establish a policy in order to organize energy conferences/workshops/seminars for encouraging FDI (foreign direct investment) in renewable energy technology (RET).
- Establish a policy to adopt and manufacture cost effective energy storage technologies in the country to promote renewable energy projects.
- Establish an incubation center for research & development with global collaboration, especially in the energy sector, to deploy new renewable energy technologies.
6.1. Losses Reduction in the Energy Sector
6.2. Feasible Projects of Renewable Energy
6.3. Subsidy for Renewable Energy & Energy Storage Technology
6.4. R&D along with Global Collaboration
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|S.No.||Country||Land Area (km2)||Population (Million) (2019)||Electricity Generation (2019) (TWh)||Share of Power Production (2019)|
|1.||Pakistan||881,913||211.17||87.3||62.1% (oil and gas)|
|25.8% (hydro power)|
|8.2% (nuclear power)|
|19% (natural gas)|
|29% (hydro power)|
|S.No.||Country||Fossil Fuel Import||Renewable Energy||Expected Increase in|
Renewable Power Generation
|Fossil Fuel Share for Transport System|
|1.||Pakistan||60% of its capital||3.9% of primary energy||30% share of renewable by 2030||10% of Fossil fuel|
|2.||Turkey||72% of primary energy||15% of primary energy||30% share of renewable by 2023||40% of Fossil fuel|
|S.No.||Government Bodies||Functions||Steps to Promote Renewable Energy Projects|
|1.||PCRET||▪ Decreasing reliance on conventional fuel energy.|
▪ Assisting GOP (government of Pakistan) in the research and development initiatives.
|▪ Commenced and implemented small scale projects to display its practicability and effectiveness.|
▪ Installation of wind turbines, solar desalination systems, biomass plants and solar water heater projects.
|2.||AEDB||▪ Decreasing reliance on the conventional fuel energy.|
▪ Development of renewable energy policy providing support for the deployment of renewable energy technologies across Pakistan.
|▪ Plans to develop renewable energy project and cope with the prevailing. power shortages across the country by producing 9700 MW of energy.|
|3.||MENR ||▪ Aims to identify targets and policies linked to power and natural resources to serve the energy security goals of the country.||▪ Striving to improve the whole capacity of renewables to 61,000 MW by 2023.|
|4.||YEGM||▪ Executes all sustainable energy-related work, including educational activities.|
▪ Energy efficiency performance indicators, standards, product performance testing activities.
|▪ Implementing, monitoring and coordinating all energy efficiency activities and studies in relevant institutions across the country.|
|5.||TUBITAK MAM Energy Institute ||▪ Aims to be a leading and competent research center conducting applied research and development projects in energy technologies.|
▪ Performs research and development activities with two teams: one in Gebze and one in Ankara.
|▪ It aims to lead the development of energy technologies domestically in parallel with Turkey’s development goals for 2023 and to develop projects for these goals.|
|S.No. (Serial Number)||Renewable Energy Project||Capacity (MW)||Power Generation (GWh)|
|1.||FFC Energy Ltd. Sindh||50||139|
|2.||Zorlu Energy Sindh||56||156|
|3.||TGF Wind Farm Pvt. Ltd. Sindh||50||80|
|4.||Foundation Wind Energy–I Sindh||50||56|
|5.||Foundation Wind Energy-II Sindh||50||26|
|6.||Bagasse Co-generation, Jamaldin Wali (JDW)-II Punjab||26||163|
|7.||Jamaldin Wali (JDW)-III Sindh||26||124|
|8.||Rahim Yar Khan (RYK) Mills Ltd. Punjab||30||32|
|1.||Losses reduction in the energy sector||Line losses in electricity distribution are prevalent, and need to be reduced.|
|2.||Generation of electricity through speed breaker||Environmentally friendly renewable energy technology.|
|3.||Corporate energy generation||Building may generate its own electricity, providing relief to the national grid.|
|4.||E-Plant||Building may generate its own electricity, providing relief to the national grid.|
|5.||Tidal/ocean wave and geothermal energy||Environmentally friendly renewable energy technology, especially for residential usage|
|6.||Biogas Plant||Cost-effective, environmentally friendly renewable energy technology.|
|7.||Subsidy for renewable energy plant installation||To completely eradicate the energy crisis in Pakistan.|
|8.||Energy conferences for encouraging FDI in RET||Higher the investment in RET, higher the probability to set up RET projects.|
|9.||Adoption of energy storage technologies||The development of renewable energy is proportional to the enhancement of energy storage technologies.|
|10.||R&D along with global collaboration||Necessary to march with the growth of RET in developed countries.|
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Uddin, R.; Shaikh, A.J.; Khan, H.R.; Shirazi, M.A.; Rashid, A.; Qazi, S.A. Renewable Energy Perspectives of Pakistan and Turkey: Current Analysis and Policy Recommendations. Sustainability 2021, 13, 3349. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063349
Uddin R, Shaikh AJ, Khan HR, Shirazi MA, Rashid A, Qazi SA. Renewable Energy Perspectives of Pakistan and Turkey: Current Analysis and Policy Recommendations. Sustainability. 2021; 13(6):3349. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063349Chicago/Turabian Style
Uddin, Riaz, Abdurrahman Javid Shaikh, Hashim Raza Khan, Muhammad Ayaz Shirazi, Athar Rashid, and Saad Ahmed Qazi. 2021. "Renewable Energy Perspectives of Pakistan and Turkey: Current Analysis and Policy Recommendations" Sustainability 13, no. 6: 3349. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063349