Societal Entrepreneurship for Sustainable Asian Rural Societies: A Multi-Sectoral Social Capital Approach in Thailand, Taiwan, and Japan
2. Theoretical Frameworks: Societal Entrepreneurship and Social Capital
3. Methods and Data
4. Case Studies
4.1.2. Case: Family Forestry Project in Thailand
4.2.2. Case: Eagle Red Bean
4.3.2. Case: Agricultural Corporations in an Aging Society
5. Analysis and Discussion
5.1. Types of Social Capital
5.1.1. Collective Social Capital
5.1.2. Relational Social Capital
5.1.3. Generalized Social Capital
5.2. Sectoral Roles and Policy Implications
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Types of Agricultural Organizations||No. of Organizations||No. of Members||Characteristics|
(farmland, fisheries, and settlements)
(as of 2018)
(as of 2018)
|A group of people (>10) with the same/similar occupation;|
members contribute capital, hold shares according to their contribution, and receive dividends.
(stores, services, savings institutions, and credit unions)
(as of 2018)
(as of 2018)
(as of 2018)
(as of 2018)
|A business entity providing products or services, run by at least 7 members;|
it supports self-reliance and receives government certification.
|Farmers’ cooperative associations||4518|
(as of 2017)
(as of 2017)
|A self-reliance oriented group of farmers (>30) who support one another’s business by sharing agricultural and household technical knowledge and providing financial assistance to members.|
|Associations (samakhom)||5||524||Organizations that support members (agricultural entrepreneurs) by negotiating with outside stakeholders in conducting business;|
they cooperate with public and private entities in research.
|Types of Agricultural Organizations||No. of Organizations||No. of Members|
|Agricultural production cooperatives||760||62,980|
|Agricultural marketing cooperatives||369||87,362|
|Production and marketing groups||5826||121,449|
|Social Impact Created||Key Sector/Organization||Key Objectives and Milestones Accomplished|
|Agriculture development||Second sector|
|Community development||Third sector||Community development associations cooperate with C.Y. Lin and the cooperative to assist local farmers in growing Eagle Red Bean and engage in community welfare activities.|
|Second sector||PX Mart contributes a certain percentage of income to community development.|
|First sector||Assisting cooperatives in networking with other rural communities.|
|Second sector||Farmers change from conventional farming to eco-friendly farming.|
|First sector||Government departments provide subsidies to NGOs to conduct relevant research.|
|Consumers||More consumers are aware of buying eco-friendly agricultural produce.|
|Pesticide control||Third sector||Carbofuran identified as a poisonous substance following research on the adverse impact of pesticides.|
|Second sector||Pesticide stores and companies develop eco-friendly substitutes to solve problems of farming.|
|Food safety||Second sector||Sale of Eagle Red Bean, a traceable agricultural product promoted by PX Mart.|
|First sector||Stricter checks on agricultural produce by government.|
|Consumers||More consumers are aware of food safety.|
|Promotion and marketing channel||Third sector||NT$1.7 million raised by documentary Fly, Kite, Fly through Flying V crowdfunding platform in 2015.|
|Second sector||Eagle Red Bean product series on sale in PX Mart Taiwan since 2016.|
|Third sector and First sector||Thousands of consumers planting red beans during promotional activity since 2018.|
|Agricultural cooperative corporation|
Limited liability corporation
Joint stock company
Membership-based (including newcomers)
Set up by JA
Set up by business
Other social/public services
|Municipality||X town||Y city||Y city||Y city||Z city|
|Legal entity||Joint stock company||Foundation||Agricultural cooperative corporation||Limited liability corporation||Agricultural cooperative corporation|
|Background||Created by the former local government/JA||Created by the former local government||Hamlet-based group||Hamlet-based group||Hamlet-based group (only a few households)|
|Employees||2 (full-time)||7 (full-time)||5 (full-time)||1 (full-time)||6 (full-time)|
|Operations||• Paddy rice (24 ha), wheat (10 ha), vegetables (1.5 ha), and soy beans (0.5 ha) sold to JA||• Paddy rice (8 ha), wheat (4 ha), soy beans (0.3 ha), and vegetables (1 ha)|
|Support from local government||• Subsidies for crops||• Initial support for infrastructure (25+ years ago)|
|Stakeholder||Objective||Need of Agricultural Corporation (AC)|
|Local community||Hope to sustain farming without their own labor||Maintain (all) farmland (as paddy rice fields).|
|Local government||Desire to sustain rural community with decreasing number of staff||Expected to play a bigger role in maintaining communities (without a large amount of subsidies).|
|Agricultural cooperative (JA)||Increase trading volume and improve their own profitability||AC will sell their products to JA (at low prices).|
|Market||Have good quality products with low prices||A variety of products (not only rice) that are high-quality and low-priced.|
|Hired workers||Earn a living||Higher salaries (especially for those who are from other/urban areas).|
|Case||Sustainability Issue||Type of Social Capital (by Brunie 2009)||Innovations for Sustainable Development|
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Rado, I.; Lu, M.-F.; Lin, I.-C.; Aoo, K. Societal Entrepreneurship for Sustainable Asian Rural Societies: A Multi-Sectoral Social Capital Approach in Thailand, Taiwan, and Japan. Sustainability 2021, 13, 2747. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052747
Rado I, Lu M-F, Lin I-C, Aoo K. Societal Entrepreneurship for Sustainable Asian Rural Societies: A Multi-Sectoral Social Capital Approach in Thailand, Taiwan, and Japan. Sustainability. 2021; 13(5):2747. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052747Chicago/Turabian Style
Rado, Istvan, Mei-Fei Lu, I-Chen Lin, and Ken Aoo. 2021. "Societal Entrepreneurship for Sustainable Asian Rural Societies: A Multi-Sectoral Social Capital Approach in Thailand, Taiwan, and Japan" Sustainability 13, no. 5: 2747. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052747