Next Article in Journal
Societal Entrepreneurship for Sustainable Asian Rural Societies: A Multi-Sectoral Social Capital Approach in Thailand, Taiwan, and Japan
Previous Article in Journal
Reliability of Relative Permeability Measurements for Heterogeneous Rocks Using Horizontal Core Flood Experiments
Article

Development and Evaluation of Direct Paddy Seeder in Puddled Field

1
Farm Machinery & Power Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, India
2
Renewable Energy Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, India
3
Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Aitazaz A. Farooque
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2745; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052745
Received: 7 January 2021 / Revised: 17 February 2021 / Accepted: 25 February 2021 / Published: 3 March 2021
Manual transplanting, a pre-dominant practice in almost all the paddy growing areas in India, is laborious, burdensome, and has many expenses on raising, settling, and transplanting nursery. The transplanting process’s limitations motivated the replacement of conventional paddy transplanting methods. The study was divided into two phases. The first phase included laboratory testing of three levels of metering mechanisms, namely cell type (M1) with 10 cells grooved around a circular plate having a 13 cm diameter, inclined plate (M2) containing 24 U shaped cells provided on an 18 cm diameter plate, and fluted roller (M3) with 10 flutes on a 5 cm diameter shaft. The testing matrix included a missing index, multiple index, and seed damage with forward speeds (2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 km/h), and pre-germination levels of 24 h soaked (P1), 24 h pre-germinated (P2), and 36 h pre-germinated paddy seeds (P3)). The second phase included selecting the best combination obtained from the laboratory study and developing a new efficient planter for the puddled field. The inclined plate metering mechanism operating at 2.5 km/h for 24 h pre-germinated seeds was reported most efficient from the first phase. Therefore, a self-propelled 8-row planter equipped with an inclined plate metering mechanism having a row-to-row spacing of 22.5 cm was developed, fabricated, and evaluated in the puddled field. The designed planter was assessed on two different soils: sandy loom (ST1) and clay loom (ST2) and at two different hopper fill levels as ½ filled hopper (F1) and ¾ filled hopper (F2). The number of plants per square meter and hill-to-hill spacing was measured. The on-field evaluation revealed that the number of plants per square meter was non-significantly affected by the type of soil but was significantly affected by hopper fill. View Full-Text
Keywords: direct paddy seeder; pre-germinated paddy seed; puddle field; missing index; multiple indexes; seed damage direct paddy seeder; pre-germinated paddy seed; puddle field; missing index; multiple indexes; seed damage
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kumar, M.; Dogra, R.; Narang, M.; Singh, M.; Mehan, S. Development and Evaluation of Direct Paddy Seeder in Puddled Field. Sustainability 2021, 13, 2745. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052745

AMA Style

Kumar M, Dogra R, Narang M, Singh M, Mehan S. Development and Evaluation of Direct Paddy Seeder in Puddled Field. Sustainability. 2021; 13(5):2745. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052745

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kumar, Manoj, Ritu Dogra, Mahesh Narang, Manjit Singh, and Sushant Mehan. 2021. "Development and Evaluation of Direct Paddy Seeder in Puddled Field" Sustainability 13, no. 5: 2745. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052745

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop