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Open AccessArticle

Latent Heat Thermal Storage in Non-Uniform Metal Foam Filled with Nano-Enhanced Phase Change Material

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Metamaterials for Mechanical, Biomechanical and Multiphysical Applications Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 758307, Vietnam
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Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 758307, Vietnam
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Young Researchers and Elite Club, Yasooj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasooj 7591493686, Iran
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ECAM Lyon, LabECAM, Université de Lyon, 69005 Lyon, France
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College of Preparatory Year, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah Al Mukarramah 21955, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering at Wadi Addwaser, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Wadi Addwaser 11991, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Khartoum, Khartoum 11111, Sudan
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Faculty of Engineering, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
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CanmetENERGY Research Centre, Natural Resources Canada, 1 Haanel Drive, Ottawa, ON K1A 1M1, Canada
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Caggiano
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 2401; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042401
Received: 26 January 2021 / Revised: 14 February 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2021 / Published: 23 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Deal in Construction and Building Materials)
The melting heat transfer of CuO—coconut oil embedded in a non-uniform copper metal foam—was addressed. Copper foam is placed in a channel-shaped Thermal Energy Storage (TES) unit heated from one side. The foam is non-uniform with a linear porosity gradient in a direction perpendicular to the heated surface. The finite element method was applied to simulate natural convection flow and phase change heat transfer in the TES unit. The results showed that the porosity gradient could significantly boost the melting rate and stored energy rate in the TES unit. The best non-uniform porosity corresponds to a case in which the maximum porosity is next to a heated surface. The variation of the unit placement’s inclination angle is only important in the final stage of charging, where there is a dominant natural convection flow. The variation of porous pore size induces minimal impact on the phase change rate, except in the case of a large pore size of 30 pore density (PPI). The presence of nanoparticles could increase or decrease the charging time. However, using a 4% volume fraction of nanoparticles could mainly reduce the charging time. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-uniform metal foam; thermal energy storage; melting heat transfer; nano-enhanced phase change material (NePCM) non-uniform metal foam; thermal energy storage; melting heat transfer; nano-enhanced phase change material (NePCM)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ghalambaz, M.; Mehryan, S.A.M.; Hajjar, A.; Fteiti, M.A.; Younis, O.; Sardari, P.T.; Yaïci, W. Latent Heat Thermal Storage in Non-Uniform Metal Foam Filled with Nano-Enhanced Phase Change Material. Sustainability 2021, 13, 2401. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042401

AMA Style

Ghalambaz M, Mehryan SAM, Hajjar A, Fteiti MA, Younis O, Sardari PT, Yaïci W. Latent Heat Thermal Storage in Non-Uniform Metal Foam Filled with Nano-Enhanced Phase Change Material. Sustainability. 2021; 13(4):2401. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042401

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ghalambaz, Mohammad; Mehryan, S. A.M.; Hajjar, Ahmad; Fteiti, Mehdi A.; Younis, Obai; Sardari, Pouyan T.; Yaïci, Wahiba. 2021. "Latent Heat Thermal Storage in Non-Uniform Metal Foam Filled with Nano-Enhanced Phase Change Material" Sustainability 13, no. 4: 2401. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042401

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