Next Article in Journal
Methodology for Calculating the European Innovation Scoreboard—Proposition for Modification
Previous Article in Journal
Analysis of Product-Country Image from Consumer’s Perspective: The Impact of Subjective Knowledge, Perceived Risk and Media Influence
 
 
Article

Effect of Climate Variability on Green and Blue Water Resources in a Temperate Monsoon Watershed, Northeastern China

by 1,†, 1,†, 1,* and 2
1
School of Geography, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China
2
Institute of Marine Sustainable Development, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work and should be considered co-first authors.
Academic Editor: Tommaso Caloiero
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 2193; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042193
Received: 6 January 2021 / Revised: 4 February 2021 / Accepted: 7 February 2021 / Published: 18 February 2021
Over 80% of global grain production relies on green water, water from precipitation that is stored in unsaturated soil and supports plant growth. Blue water, precipitation that turns into surface water and groundwater, is also a vital surface water resource, and it can be directly utilized. The Tanghe River Basin is a typical temperate continental monsoon watershed in Northern China where residents and crops rely on blue and green water resources. In this study, the spatiotemporal distributions of water resources in the Tanghe River Basin were simulated using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model for the period between 1970 and 2015. The results demonstrate that the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency and coefficient of determination were both higher than 0.64 during the calibration and validation periods at all hydrological stations, indicating high simulation accuracy. The average annual water resources of the Tanghe River Basin are 759.37 mm. Green and blue water account for 68% and 32% of the total water resources, respectively. The study period was divided into the reference period (1970–1976) and the variation period (1977–2015), to explore the impact of climate change on the green and blue water resources of the Tanghe River Basin water resources. Compared with the reference period, the average green and blue water resources in the variation period decreased by 78.48 and 35.94 mm/year, and their rate changes were −13.45% and −13.17%, respectively. The water resource relative change rates were high in the south and low in the north, and they were predominantly affected by precipitation. This study improves our understanding of the hydrological processes as well as the availability of blue and green water in the study region, and can prove beneficial in promoting the sustainable development of small basins and the integrated watershed management in areas with similar climatic conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: SWAT model; blue water resources; green water resources; Tanghe River Basin SWAT model; blue water resources; green water resources; Tanghe River Basin
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, J.; Lyu, L.; Han, Y.; Sun, C. Effect of Climate Variability on Green and Blue Water Resources in a Temperate Monsoon Watershed, Northeastern China. Sustainability 2021, 13, 2193. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042193

AMA Style

Jiang J, Lyu L, Han Y, Sun C. Effect of Climate Variability on Green and Blue Water Resources in a Temperate Monsoon Watershed, Northeastern China. Sustainability. 2021; 13(4):2193. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042193

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jiang, Junchao, Leting Lyu, Yuechi Han, and Caizhi Sun. 2021. "Effect of Climate Variability on Green and Blue Water Resources in a Temperate Monsoon Watershed, Northeastern China" Sustainability 13, no. 4: 2193. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042193

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop