Thermal Inequity in Richmond, VA: The Effect of an Unjust Evolution of the Urban Landscape on Urban Heat Islands
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Area
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Variable||Q1 Average||Q4 Average||Temperature Difference °C (Q4–Q1)||t-Test|
|Impervious surface (%)||17.38||52.71||1.01||3.18 × 10−19|
|Canopy cover (%)||13.76||47.87||−0.96||1.36 × 10−18|
|Redlining C + D (%)||0||83.79||0.53||3.15 × 10−6|
|Drove alone to work (%)||47.5||88.13||−0.51||4.27 × 10−6|
|Below poverty level (%)||18.21||30.98||0.51||0.0015|
|Median household income ($)||22,615||98,945||−0.41||0.0008|
|Per capita income ($)||11,293||57,490||−0.37||0.002|
|White population (%)||7.6||89.31||−0.31||0.007|
|Detached housing (%)||12.31||93.13||−0.31||0.009|
|Green space (%)||0||17.81||−0.3||0.0097|
|Black population (%)||6.09||86.9||0.27||0.0156|
|Redlining A + B (%)||0||55.53||−0.26||0.011|
|Non-Hispanic white population (%)||2.43||88.46||−0.26||0.0158|
|Attached housing (%)||0||20.07||0.25||0.024|
|Bachelor’s degree or more (%)||6.108||74.6||−0.11||0.248|
|Hispanic population (%)||0.056||19.2||0.09||0.378|
|Variable||Q1 Average||Q4 Average||Temperature Difference °C (Q4-Q1)||t-Test|
|Median household income ($)||19,046||80,909||−0.5||1.72 × 10−5|
|Drove alone to work (%)||46.12||88.77||−0.46||0.0001|
|Non-Hispanic white population (%)||4.6||87.81||−0.33||0.0038|
|Bachelor’s degree or more (%)||2.94||72.88||−0.29||0.0106|
|White population (%)||3.28||90.24||−0.28||0.0091|
|Black population (%)||5.44||93.64||0.26||0.0124|
|Hispanic population (%)||0||14.95||0.09||0.4284|
|Variable||South (206 East)||South (206 West)||North (207)|
|Mean afternoon temperature (°C)||35.69||35.7||35.96|
|Below poverty level (%)||8.3||15.67||39.27|
|Per capita income ($)||40,508||37,757||17,104|
|Median household income ($)||66,620||45,673||22,135|
|White population (%)||48.46||73.11||17.1|
|Black population (%)||34.46||19.34||75.52|
|Redlining Category D (%)||67.8||38.37||56.89|
|Property value ($)||232,000||229,950||129,888|
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Saverino, K.C.; Routman, E.; Lookingbill, T.R.; Eanes, A.M.; Hoffman, J.S.; Bao, R. Thermal Inequity in Richmond, VA: The Effect of an Unjust Evolution of the Urban Landscape on Urban Heat Islands. Sustainability 2021, 13, 1511. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031511
Saverino KC, Routman E, Lookingbill TR, Eanes AM, Hoffman JS, Bao R. Thermal Inequity in Richmond, VA: The Effect of an Unjust Evolution of the Urban Landscape on Urban Heat Islands. Sustainability. 2021; 13(3):1511. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031511Chicago/Turabian Style
Saverino, Kelly C., Emily Routman, Todd R. Lookingbill, Andre M. Eanes, Jeremy S. Hoffman, and Rong Bao. 2021. "Thermal Inequity in Richmond, VA: The Effect of an Unjust Evolution of the Urban Landscape on Urban Heat Islands" Sustainability 13, no. 3: 1511. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031511