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Article

Producing Direct Food Packaging Using Deinked Office Paper Grades—Deinkability and Food Contact Suitability Evaluation

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Department of Printing Materials and Printing Forms, Faculty of Graphic Arts, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Division of Health Safety and Quality of Food and Objects of Common Use, Andrija Stampar Teaching Institute of Public Health, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Bianca Furdui, Rodica-Mihaela Dinicǎ and Petronela Nechita
Sustainability 2021, 13(22), 12550; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212550
Received: 30 September 2021 / Revised: 9 November 2021 / Accepted: 10 November 2021 / Published: 13 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Biomass Waste Valorization)
Paper recycling is the most eco-efficient waste management option, since the use of recycled fibers reduces the need for virgin wood fiber and lowers energy consumption, and hence has a positive effect on the environment. The use of recycled paper is by far the highest in the packaging industry. In food packaging production, recycled paper is often favored over paper and board made from virgin fibers. However, due to the possible hazardous chemicals that can be found in recycled paper, there is a dilemma of how to overcome food safety issues while making food packaging more circular. The objective of the study was to determine if deinked office paper grades could be used as an alternative fiber source in the production of food packaging white top linerboards. For that purpose, three different types of digitally printed papers were submitted to a chemical deinking flotation in laboratory conditions, and the handsheets formed after each recycling trial were tested on the suitability for direct food contact. Evaluation of deinkability for each group of recycled prints was performed, as well. Deinkability was evaluated by calculating the flotation yield, pulp’s brightness and whiteness increase, ink elimination factor, determination of residual ink area, as well as ash content elimination. Food safety evaluation was performed by determining the content of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, and Cr VI), primary aromatic amines, diisopropylnaphthalenes (DIPN), phthalates, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from aqueous or organic solvent extracts of recycled paper pulp. The fastness of the fluorescent whitening agents was determined, as well. Of all evaluated deinking flotation efficiency parameters, only flotation yield and ash reduction by flotation were positively assessed. High content of residual ink particles detected after the flotation stage indicates that the flotation was not a successful method for the elimination of disintegrated ink particles, which was also confirmed by deficient results of ink elimination measurements and whiteness increase. Flotation proved to be the least efficient in the recycling of inkjet prints, where the lowest ink elimination, whiteness, and brightness values were achieved. As far as food safety assessment of deinked pulp is concerned, all tested deinked handsheets were found suitable to be used in direct contact with foods. View Full-Text
Keywords: office paper grades; deinking by flotation; white top linerboard; food packaging; food contact analysis office paper grades; deinking by flotation; white top linerboard; food packaging; food contact analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jamnicki Hanzer, S.; Lozo, B.; Barušić, L. Producing Direct Food Packaging Using Deinked Office Paper Grades—Deinkability and Food Contact Suitability Evaluation. Sustainability 2021, 13, 12550. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212550

AMA Style

Jamnicki Hanzer S, Lozo B, Barušić L. Producing Direct Food Packaging Using Deinked Office Paper Grades—Deinkability and Food Contact Suitability Evaluation. Sustainability. 2021; 13(22):12550. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212550

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jamnicki Hanzer, Sonja, Branka Lozo, and Lidija Barušić. 2021. "Producing Direct Food Packaging Using Deinked Office Paper Grades—Deinkability and Food Contact Suitability Evaluation" Sustainability 13, no. 22: 12550. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212550

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