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Article

On the Evolution of Hierarchical Urban Systems in Soviet Russia, 1897–1989

1
Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University, 2-1 Naka, Kunitachi, Tokyo 186-8603, Japan
2
School of International Liberal Studies, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishi-Waseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Åsa Gren
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11389; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011389
Received: 6 September 2021 / Revised: 8 October 2021 / Accepted: 11 October 2021 / Published: 15 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Geography and Sustainability)
One piece of evidence of the inefficiency of the spatial economy of modern Russia presented in the seminal work of Hill and Gaddy (2004) is that Russian urban agglomerations are non-viable. This was demonstrated using Zipf’s rank-size distribution, which does not hold for Russian urban systems. Hill and Gaddy explained this through the legacy of the Soviet command-administrative planning. Having constructed an original dataset, which incorporated comprehensive historical data for all the cities in the former Soviet Union republics and tested the rank-size distributions for the respective years, the study yielded more nuanced findings. First, unlike the modern Russian hierarchical urban systems, the Soviet ones followed rank-size distribution fairly well. Second, the Soviet urban systems were evolving. In the late Imperial era and early Soviet period, they followed the Zipf’s law prediction. However, between 1939 and 1959, the rank-size distribution diverged from the predicted one. Yet again, the Soviet hierarchical urban systems revealed a trend of convergence toward the traditional rank-size distribution in the late Soviet era. A corollary to such evidence from data trajectory appears that the evolution of the Soviet hierarchical urban systems was not necessarily the ultimate product of the urban development policies of the command-administrative system. It can be thus presumed that, contrary to the established belief, command administrative urban development might be ineffectual even in centrally planned socialist economies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Zipf’s law; rank-size rule; hierarchical urban system; Soviet Union; Russia Zipf’s law; rank-size rule; hierarchical urban system; Soviet Union; Russia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumo, K.; Shadrina, E. On the Evolution of Hierarchical Urban Systems in Soviet Russia, 1897–1989. Sustainability 2021, 13, 11389. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011389

AMA Style

Kumo K, Shadrina E. On the Evolution of Hierarchical Urban Systems in Soviet Russia, 1897–1989. Sustainability. 2021; 13(20):11389. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011389

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kumo, Kazuhiro, and Elena Shadrina. 2021. "On the Evolution of Hierarchical Urban Systems in Soviet Russia, 1897–1989" Sustainability 13, no. 20: 11389. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011389

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