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Review

Utilization of Industrial By-Products/Waste to Manufacture Geopolymer Cement/Concrete

1
Structural Engineering, Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur 440033, India
2
Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering and Material Science, University of Stavanger, 4021 Stavanger, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020873
Received: 10 December 2020 / Revised: 30 December 2020 / Accepted: 1 January 2021 / Published: 16 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Construction and Building Materials for Environment)
There has been a significant movement in the past decades to develop alternative sustainable building material such as geopolymer cement/concrete to control CO2 emission. Industrial waste contains pozzolanic minerals that fulfil requirements to develop the sustainable material such as alumino-silicate based geopolymer. For example, industrial waste such as red mud, fly ash, GBFS/GGBS (granulated blast furnace slag/ground granulated blast furnace slag), rice husk ash (RHA), and bagasse ash consist of minerals that contribute to the manufacturing of geopolymer cement/concrete. A literature review was carried out to study the different industrial waste/by-products and their chemical composition, which is vital for producing geopolymer cement, and to discuss the mechanical properties of geopolymer cement/concrete manufactured using different industrial waste/by-products. The durability, financial benefits and sustainability aspects of geopolymer cement/concrete have been highlighted. As per the experimental results from the literature, the cited industrial waste has been successfully utilized for the synthesis of dry or wet geopolymers. The review revealed that that the use of fly ash, GBFS/GGBS and RHA in geopolymer concrete resulted high compressive strength (i.e., 50 MPa–70 MPa). For high strength (>70 MPa) achievement, most of the slag and ash-based geopolymer cement/concrete in synergy with nano processed waste have shown good mechanical properties and environmental resistant. The alkali-activated geopolymer slag, red mud and fly ash based geopolymer binders give a better durability performance compared with other industrial waste. Based on the sustainability indicators, most of the geopolymers developed using the industrial waste have a positive impact on the environment, society and economy. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainability; industrial wastes; geopolymer concrete; pozzolanic binders; building materials; alkali-activation; sustainability indicator sustainability; industrial wastes; geopolymer concrete; pozzolanic binders; building materials; alkali-activation; sustainability indicator
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MDPI and ACS Style

Azad, N.M.; Samarakoon, S.M.S.M.K. Utilization of Industrial By-Products/Waste to Manufacture Geopolymer Cement/Concrete. Sustainability 2021, 13, 873. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020873

AMA Style

Azad NM, Samarakoon SMSMK. Utilization of Industrial By-Products/Waste to Manufacture Geopolymer Cement/Concrete. Sustainability. 2021; 13(2):873. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020873

Chicago/Turabian Style

Azad, Numanuddin M., and S.M. S.M.K. Samarakoon 2021. "Utilization of Industrial By-Products/Waste to Manufacture Geopolymer Cement/Concrete" Sustainability 13, no. 2: 873. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020873

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