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Article

Managed Retreat as Adaptation Option: Investigating Different Resettlement Approaches and Their Impacts—Lessons from Metro Manila

1
Institute of Spatial and Regional Planning (IREUS), University of Stuttgart, 70049 Stuttgart, Germany
2
School of Urban and Regional Planning (SURP), University of the Philippines, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020829
Received: 10 December 2020 / Revised: 11 January 2021 / Accepted: 12 January 2021 / Published: 15 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Planning of Urban Regions)
Managed retreat has become a recommended adaptation strategy for hazard-prone coastal cities. The study aimed to improve considerations for the contextual factors that influence the success of managed retreat and resettlement projects in Metro Manila. Data were collected through a mixed-method approach consisting of a screening of relevant literature, a qualitative case analysis of resettlement projects, and a workshop series with Philippine stakeholders. It turned out that the resettlement of informal settlers is a central element of urban development. Though in-city resettlement is preferred, the majority of existing and planned projects are developed in off-city locations. The findings present a nuanced view of different retreat approaches. Not all in-city resettlements are successful, and the unpopular off-city projects have a potentially important role for urban and regional development. A strategic planning thread to develop concepts for qualitative off-city settlements that counteract uncontrolled urban sprawl with monofunctional residential areas for urban poor people was deduced. The other thread asks for pathways for inner-city development with innovative, vertical, in-city projects. A final observation was that climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic are worsening the situation in informal settlements, thus strengthening the argument for the planned decentralization of Metro Manila’s congested urban areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: managed retreat; resettlement; climate change; hazards; informal settlements; urban development; COVID-19; Metro Manila managed retreat; resettlement; climate change; hazards; informal settlements; urban development; COVID-19; Metro Manila
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lauer, H.; Delos Reyes, M.; Birkmann, J. Managed Retreat as Adaptation Option: Investigating Different Resettlement Approaches and Their Impacts—Lessons from Metro Manila. Sustainability 2021, 13, 829. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020829

AMA Style

Lauer H, Delos Reyes M, Birkmann J. Managed Retreat as Adaptation Option: Investigating Different Resettlement Approaches and Their Impacts—Lessons from Metro Manila. Sustainability. 2021; 13(2):829. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020829

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lauer, Hannes, Mario Delos Reyes, and Joern Birkmann. 2021. "Managed Retreat as Adaptation Option: Investigating Different Resettlement Approaches and Their Impacts—Lessons from Metro Manila" Sustainability 13, no. 2: 829. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020829

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