2.1. Bosnia-Herzegovina Case
Energy intensity, defined as a measure of the energy inefficiency of an economy, is calculated as units of energy per unit of GDP. The energy intensity of B&H was estimated at 0.42 tonnes of oil equivalent (toe)/1000 USD of GDP according to data from the International Energy Agency from 2018 [25
]. This is four times higher than the average in European Union and OECD member countries. Moreover, the average European country generates four times more national income for the same amount of energy consumed in B&H. According to the same source, B&H has ten times lower GDP and consumes three times less primary energy per capita compared to EU countries. The reasons for this are that B&H has a low standard of living and has an underdeveloped industry. The energy intensity of B&H was similar to Serbia and Bulgaria five years ago, but from 2018, it is getting poorer. Since 2018, B&H has the worst energy intensity of all the countries of the former Yugoslavia (e.g., Serbia [0.35], North Macedonia [0.24], Montenegro [0.23], Croatia [0.15], and Slovenia [0.14]). Compared to the best energy intensity, which was calculated for Switzerland (0.03), the differences are high. In addition, the final energy consumption in B&H is highest in the building sector, where 64% of energy is spent on space heating, while the remaining 36% is used for lighting, electrical appliances, cooking (66% of electricity), and hot water preparation (89% of electricity). In the first national action plan for energy efficiency from the 2012 analysis, energy consumption was 5% lower in the sector of residential buildings (Figure 2
]. This may be due to decreased energy consumption in the industrial sector.
According to data from the Energy Balance of Republika Srpska for 2019, there was almost identical consumption to that in 2010 in the building sector, while it increased in transport and industry (Figure 3
). This latest energy balance also highlights the increase in final energy consumption from heating wood to 33.68% and the decrease in liquid fuels to 30.45%, which may indicate a decrease in total carbon dioxide emissions generated in the Republika Srpska.
The original data on energy and energy consumption of the entities of Bosnia-Herzegovina (the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina) can be followed from the balance plans from the official websites of the competent ministries. However, in order to present and compare the whole energy consumption of B&H and Slovenia, data from the International Energy Agency will be presented.
shows that after eight years, energy production in B&H increased from 6811 thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe) to 7865 ktoe. This is interesting, because in 2018, for the first time, B&H reported the production of renewable sources (wind, solar, etc.), which accounted for 0.14%. The share of energy from biofuels increased by over six times. However, B&H still has the largest share of coal and oil for energy production, at 53.78% and 21.41%, respectively. According to the data of the Statistical Office of B&H, for 2018 the energy supply amounted to 7766 ktoe, of which only 73.6 ktoe were imported and 213.3 ktoe were exported [29
In B&H, in the past, buildings did not need to be energy-efficient, but only to serve the functional needs of society/communities. This had an impact on the design of the country’s old building stock, which ensured sufficient space for the intended use of buildings. Following the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings from 2002 and the Directive on End-Use of Energy in 2006, the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina adopted the Regulations on Rational Energy Consumption in 2010. Six years later, in January 2016, the Republika Srpska adopted the Regulations on Energy Efficiency in Building, presented in Figure 5
. Great emphasis is placed on improving the energy performance of building envelopes by setting the energy certification of buildings based on their energy need for heating. The set of regulations that more closely control the field of energy efficiency in buildings in Republika Srpska are: Rulebook on Minimum Requirements for Energy Performance of Buildings, Rulebook on Methodology for Calculating Energy Performance of Buildings, and Rulebook on Performing Energy Audit of Buildings and Issuing RS Energy Certificate.
The data would directly indicate the energy needed for heating in buildings, and the possible savings, and indirectly the consumption of total energy and carbon dioxide emissions. The starting point for the energy efficiency of a building was a basic indicator of the condition of the building envelope, not considering the technical systems within the building. Later, the building’s technical systems took on an important role. Therefore, the energy efficiency indicator in buildings (energy certificate indicator) is the annual energy need for heating.
Starting with Directive 2010/30/EU, and then Directive 2012/27/EU, it is stated that the energy efficiency indicator must be guided by the delivered energy, primary energy, and/or carbon dioxide emissions. This requires an amendment to the rulebook, which the government of Republika Srpska is considering changing in 2020. Adequate building materials must be used for energy efficiency and overall renovation of buildings, and it is important to consider the adoption of legislation related to construction products, presented in Figure 6
Following enactment of the relevant legislation, research was conducted that resulted in the release of two documents: Typology of Residential Buildings of Bosnia and Herzegovina [30
] and Typology of Public Buildings of Bosnia and Herzegovina [31
]. Both documents contain an overview of the energy need for heating through the existing building stock, its structure by construction period, and type of building. In addition to the complete data for Bosnia and Herzegovina, data by entities (Republika Srpska and Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina) of Bosnia-Herzegovina are also presented.
According to typology data, there are a total of 861,965 residential and 7600 public buildings in B&H. Of that number, 331,589 residential buildings belong to the Republika Srpska, with 39,846,631 square meters of usable heating area and 2908 public buildings with a total usable heating area of 3,614,839 square meters. Less than 1% of public buildings are in the building fund of the Republika Srpska, while in the total usable area for heating 8.32% belongs to public buildings.
Based on the data published in the typologies, the energy need for heating of all buildings in Republika Srpska is 8,427,652 megawatt-hours (MWh), of which 7,729,138 MWh belongs to residential buildings and 698,514 MWh to public buildings.
Standard improvement measures in typology of residential buildings, defined in accordance with usual measures applied during building reconstruction in the territory of B&H, includes two approaches. Improvement of thermal characteristics of walls and ceilings by technically common procedures, such as adding thermal insulation with a thickness of 10 centimeters with thermal conductivity λ = 0.041 W/mK, as well as possible replacement of the existing windows with new ones with better characteristics (defined minimal thermal transmittance coefficient of window Uw-value 1.6 W/m2 K).
By applying standard measures to improve the envelope of existing residential buildings, it is possible to reduce the total annual thermal energy required for heating by 55.23%. Energy consumption of 19,593,880 MWh (70.53 petajoule PJ) can be reduced to 8,771,954 MWh (31.58 PJ). The results show that single-family houses are the dominant category in total energy consumption with 86.98%. After applying standard measures of improvement, the highest absolute values of savings can be achieved in this category.
Due to the better thermal characteristics of building envelope elements for buildings built in the period 1992–2014, the lowest relative savings are possible for single-family houses built in this period (32.43%) and for multifamily houses from the same period (33.77%) [32
]. These measures do not correspond to the currently valid aforementioned rulebook of the Republika Srpska, because the U
-value for façade wall is more demanding (e.g., about 12 cm of thermal insulation on walls, thermal conductivity of 0.041 W/mK is required).
A cost-optimal analysis of residential buildings in B&H aimed to determine adequate levels of residential building energy classes, according to the EU Directive of 2012, with new climate data not used in the existing typologies. According to the new climate data, the energy demand for the heating of residential buildings in the North zone is, on average, lower by 12.55–13.54%, while in the South zone, it is lower by 14.28–15.25%. For non-residential buildings, it is lower by 17% and 19% in the North and South zone, respectively [33
]. The aforementioned research would require modification of the U
-values and energy classes in the regulations on the minimum requirements for the energy performance of buildings.
The cost-optimal analysis included an analysis of the costs of applying different packages of 33 measures to the two most common types of housing: single-family houses and multifamily houses. Measures that improve the envelope, specifying thickness and thermal conductivity of the material/insulation or U-value of the product-window, are discussed without specifying the use of renewable materials. The measures of improvement of the heating system and domestic hot water (DHW) system mention the centralization of the system and the use of renewable energy sources.
The RS Building Renovation Strategy assumes three scenarios, representing different levels of ambition for future renovation, based on two drivers: renewal rate, defined as the ratio of the usable floor area of annually renovated buildings to the total usable area of the entire building stock, and depth of renovation, which indicates the energy savings achieved through the choice of renovation measures [22
2.2. Slovenia Case
According to data from the International Energy Agency from 2018, the energy intensity of Slovenia was 0.14 toe/1000 USD of GDP (International Energy Agency, 2018), which is the average of EU countries.
shows that after nine years, energy production in Slovenia decreased from 7506 ktoe to 6804 ktoe. It is interesting that production from renewable sources (wind, solar, etc.) increased to more than double, from 37 ktoe to 87 ktoe, which accounts for 1.28% of the total energy production in 2019. The production of energy from coal and oil is 15.52% and 33.92%, respectively, which makes up half of the production of total energy in Slovenia. Energy from nuclear sources also has a large share, production of which slightly increased in the last nine years.
The data from the Energy Balance of Slovenia in 2019, presented in Figure 8
, presents the production and consumption overview of energy supply in Slovenia. Total energy in Slovenia in 2019, produced and imported, was 426,246 terajoule TJ (10,180 ktoe). Domestic production accounts for 3536 ktoe, import energy for 6644 ktoe, while the total energy supply has been reported at the level of 6761 ktoe, which is almost equal to all imports.
Final energy consumption was the highest for transport (39.11%), followed by industry (28.76%), residential (21.32%), and service (10.8%). Final energy consumption in Slovenia spent on space heating by the residential sector was 62% of all energy, while the remaining 38% was used for other consumption: space cooling (1%), lighting and electrical appliances (16%), cooking (4%), and hot water preparation (17%).
The legal framework for energy efficiency in Slovenia is heavily influenced by the EU. The highest legal document on the matter is the Directive on Energy Efficiency from 2012 [19
]. It established a new system for encouraging investment in energy efficiency and reporting its results to the European Commission. The Directive became effective in Slovenia through the Energy Act (Energetski zakon, EZ-1) of 2014 (Figure 9
), and through the strategic documents that derive from it; EZ-1 regulates the Slovenian energy sector as a whole, and it also deals with energy efficiency of buildings, products, and processes. The principles of “reduction of energy use”, “efficient energy use”, and “energy efficiency” are all cited among its main aims. The act also establishes the main tools of energy policy, such as action plans and strategies. The act obliges the government to adopt an action plan for energy efficiency (art. 26). The EZ-1 chapter is dedicated to energy efficiency (art. 314–350) and includes a subchapter that regulates energy efficiency of buildings (from art. 330 onwards). Here, an outline of the main policy tools is given. These are elaborated in detail in the strategic documents, but here the list of the main envisioned activities can be found: education and informing, financial incentives, and energy consulting. An important role is given to the ECO fund (Eko sklad—Slovenski okoljski javni sklad), which has the task of assigning financial incentives for energy refurbishments according to the aforementioned strategic documents [35
The ECO fund is the Slovenian public environmental fund, which was established in 1993 with a new Environmental Protection Act (Zakon o varstvu okolja, ZVO) [36
]. The fund has evolved to be the main provider of financial incentives and subsidies for environmental projects in Slovenia. Its operation is still largely based on environmental legislation, but the EZ-1 gave to the fund new sources of revenue and new tasks regarding energy efficiency. The ECO fund has to take into account cost efficiency, social status, and environmental and other limitations while allocating funds [35
]. EZ-1, together with the Decree on Energy Savings Requirements 2014 [38
], also establishes a new financial contribution based on the achievement of energy savings that is paid by consumers, collected by energy companies (regarded as “polluters”), and forwarded to the ECO fund. Another measure that energy companies can adopt to achieve energy savings at the consumer level is investment in energy efficiency of buildings [35
The subchapter about energy efficiency of buildings begins with establishing the requirement for all new buildings to have a nearly zero energy regime (Nearly Zero Energy Buildings or nZEBs) and tasking the government to adopt an action plan for such buildings. The final provisions put enforcement to begin on 31 December 2018 for new public buildings and on 31 December 2020 for all new buildings in general [35
], while the Action Plan for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings 2015 [39
] was adopted and expires in 2020.
EZ-1 requires the government to adopt a Long-Term Strategy for Mobilizing Investment in the Energy Renovation of Buildings [35
], which has to be updated every three years and set a goal for a certain amount of buildings to be renovated every year. This amount is expressed in floor areas, and the next two articles deal with the methodology to measure them. The next chapter considers informing, educating, and raising awareness as policy tools. Special tasks of this kind are assigned to the national support center (a role given to the state-owned enterprise Borzen d.o.o, otherwise the operator of the Slovenian electrical energy market) [40
] and the ECO fund (to establish energy consulting points in local communities) [35
The Action Plan for Energy Efficiency until 2020 [41
] was adopted by the government in 2014 and updated in 2017. The action plan addresses energy efficiency in a very broad sense. It sets the objective to increase energy efficiency 20% by 2020 (the threshold of 82.86 terawatt hour (TWh) of primary energy consumption must not be surpassed that year). The third chapter outlines the measures to be taken to increase energy efficiency. Horizontal measures affect all areas at the same time (buildings, traffic, industry, heating systems) and mostly derive directly from the EZ-1. Measures that target just buildings include: updating existing building regulations with the latest energy efficiency standards, establishing a quality assurance scheme for energy inspections and comprehensive monitoring of energy renovations, continuing the program of financial incentives from the ECO fund, mobilizing similar incentives from the European agricultural fund for rural development (EAFRD) for households in rural areas, introducing an energy efficiency scheme for vulnerable households (also funded by the ECO fund), establishing a network of energy consulting points in the local communities called ENSVET, introducing instruments for investment in multifamily buildings with many owners (and updated regulations for easier decision making among them), creating a scheme for sharing the investment burden between landlords and renters, establishing a scheme to fight energy poverty in rural areas (funded by the EAFRD), and other similar measures. Most of these respond to problems detected during the operation of the ECO fund in the past. Some measures target the public sector exclusively. Among them, it is possible to find updating of green public procurement (energy efficiency criteria for goods and services purchased with public funds), activating financial instruments for energy refurbishment of public buildings (through the ECO fund and EU cohesion funds), and establishing a special project office to coordinate energy renovations of public buildings [41
The second strategically relevant document based on the EZ-1 is The Long-term Strategy for Mobilizing Investment in the Energy Renovation of Buildings (DSEPS) [42
] adopted by the government in 2015 and updated in 2018. This strategy summarizes the measures already stated in all the previously described documents, which indicates an inverted logic of strategic planning (i.e., it would be logical to assume that action plans derive from strategies, and not vice versa). However, its importance lies elsewhere. DSEPS very clearly outlines its goals, which are divided in operational (2020), indicative (2030), and with a long-term vision to achieve carbon neutrality of buildings by 2050. The most prominent indicative goals are a reduction of final energy consumption in buildings of 30% and a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from buildings of 70% (both compared to 2005 values). Operational goals follow the same pattern, but the aim to refurbish 3% of energy-ineffective public buildings per year (measured by floor surfaces) is added. The goals are not expressed just in percentile values, but are also quantified and measurable (number of buildings renovated, petajoules of energy saved, final terawatt hours of energy consumed, and number of demonstrative pilot renovations executed). The second important feature of this strategy is the in-depth analysis of the national building stock. Its presentation is based on several different parameters, such as age, typology, energy performance, and ownership. Furthermore, DSEPS also includes a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis of the risks and opportunities of energy renovation of the national building stock. Even further in the document, the methodology to determine the most cost- and energy-effective modes of renovation for each of the most common building types can be found [42
The measures indicated above aim to update legal documents that influence the energy efficiency of buildings. Two of the most important will be mentioned. The Rules on Efficient Use of Energy in Buildings were adopted in 2010 and set the technical guidelines for the energy efficiency of buildings, including marginal values of heat transfer for different circumstances [43
]. The second important document is the Decree on Green Public Procurement from 2017, which sets high environmental standards for public procurement procedures, including construction of new public buildings and refurbishment of existing ones. Among them is a visible provision that obliges timber walls to contain at least 10% recycled wood and new buildings to contain at least 30% wood in the total volume of all construction materials used [44
There are other strategic documents that influence energy efficiency of buildings, but which do not derive from the EZ-1. The first is the Operational Programme for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions until 2020 [45
], which was adopted in 2014. It is based on Decision No. 406/2009/EC [46
], issued by the EU in 2009, with the aim of reducing greenhouse emissions. Most of the measures coincide with the ones already given in AN URE 2020, but some of them are new. Here can be found additional convenient crediting schemes for energy refurbishment in households and public entities, the strengthening of energy contacting processes, and a scheme for energy efficiency of cultural heritage buildings [45
]. Another important document is the Operational Programme for the Implementation of EU Cohesion Policy 2014–2020 [47
], which is the basis for retrieving cohesion funds from the EU. Climate change and the transition to a carbon-neutral economy are among the target policy areas, and specific goals target energy efficiency of public sector entities and households. Funds for energy renovations of public buildings, implementation of energy contracting and demonstrative pilot projects target the public sector. Measures aimed at helping households include funds for energy renovations of multifamily buildings with an emphasis on demonstration and pilot projects and schemes to tackle energy poverty. These funds were also made available to private entities.
Lastly, an assessment of the implementation of the proposed measures is needed, but it is difficult to make, since the final reports will not be prepared before the strategies and action plans for the period after 2020 are published. However, a glimpse can be found in the last updates and annexes of AN URE 2020 (National Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2020) and DSEPS. Preliminary data for 2017 shows that primary energy consumption is in line with the 2020 goals (i.e., the value was 6788 Million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe), which is lower than the 7125 Mtoe aimed to be achieved in 2020) [48
]. In 2016, the renovated surface area of public buildings amounted to 11.307 square meters, which is roughly half of the required 3% aimed to be renovated every year [49
]. This data is still too scarce to assess the success of energy refurbishments in Slovenia. The TABULA project, initiated by researchers at the Darmstadt IWU Housing and Ecology Institute, gave information about typology of residential buildings, number of buildings, reference floor areas, quantity and quality of building envelopes, and amount of energy needed for heating buildings in Slovenia [50